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Learn Azeri grammar, words and read and write in Azeri

If you are not used to the sounds of the Azeri / Azerbaijani language first you will need to learn how each letter is pronounced. The table below contains the letters of the Azeri Latin alphabet and its English equivalents. Needless to say that you will encounter many regional variations!
Alphabets
 
Phonetic
As the one of Turkish languages Azerbaijan language has phonetic and grammatical structure that differs from others. For its phonetic regularities, in this language the vowels that differ from their formation places as front vowels (i,ü,e,ə,ö) and back vowels (ı,u,a,o) can`t be used in the same word ( there are some exceptional words beginning with vowel i as işıq, ildırım ). By the way İşıq means light and ildırım means thunder. At the same time in this language it is not possible to use dorsal consonants as (g, k) with back rows, and tongue back vowels as (k,q,ğ,x) with front vowels in the same stress.
In Azerbaijan language phoneme structure there are 15 vowels and 25 consonants. These phonemes are marked out 32 letters in Azerbaijan alphabet.
In Azerbaijan language there are 9 short vowels as (i,ü,e,ö,ə,a,o,u,ı), and 6 long vowel as (i:,e:,ö:,ə:, a:,u:). Long vowels are not typical for this language, they`re almost only used in loan-words. So short vowels are important.
As a rule phonetic stress falls on the last syllable. The place of phonetic stress doesn`t conjugate according the word`s meaning. Exp: alma' - 'alma. ( alma means an apple )
İn Azerbaijan language there are two phonemes that aren`t used at the begining of the word: vowel ı and consonant ğ.
 
Azerbaijani phoneticis one of the main parts of  linguistics. In this part are learned speech sounds (danışıq səsləri), vowel harmony (ahəng qanunu), syllabic(heca) and stress (vurğu).
In accordance with Azerbaijan language`s syntactical law this is word order: subject (mübtəda) used at the begining of the sentence, predicative (xəbər) at the end, attribute (təyin) used before the fixed word.
In Azerbaijan language`s word activities mainly used morphological rules (dəmirçi- hammersmith, üzümçü-  viticulturist, təbliğatçı- propagandist, dəmirçilik- the profession of a blacksmith, üzümçülük- vine-growing, təbliğatçılıq- the job of a propagandist, can, qazança-boiler, otluq- grassland, meşəlik- forest land, qaldırıcı-lifting, endirici-lowing,  gladness, gülünc- ridiculous, yavaşca-slowly, indicə-just now ) and syntactical rules (otbiçən-mower, vaxtamuzd- time-worker, boyunbağı-necklace, gündoğan-east, sarıköynək- golden oriole, əlidolu- with the hand full, adlı-sanlı- well-known, qırxayaq- centipede, beşaçılan- rifle having five charges etc.)
Speech sounds is the part of Azerbaijani explaining vowel and consonant sounds. In our language there are 9 vowels (sait). They divided into two parts:
 
qalın saitlər (hard vowels): (a), (ı),(o),(u)
incə saitlər (soft vowels): (e), (ə), (i), (ö), (ü)

 
Note       hard vowels sound in the langue back, soft vowels in  forepart.
(qeyd):  qalın saitlər dilin arxa, incə saitlər isə ön hissəsində deyilir.

Vowel harmony is the main phonetic law of Azerbaijani. In the word following hard vowels and soft vowels one-another is vowel harmony. So, if the word begins with hard vowel syllable, the next syllables are hard syllables too. In Turkish base form words vowel harmony is never broken. Exp: "ilğım"(mirage), "inam"(belief), "ilan"(snake)...
İn loan words vowel harmony is broken.Exp: "alim"(scientist), "dünya" (world), "vəfa"(loyality)...
 
Syllable is the parts of the word that can be divided easily during pronunciation. Exp: və-tən (homeland), a-zad-lıq (feedom), dil-çi-lik (linguistics), söz-lük (glossary).
How many vowels in the word there are syllables as many again. In some loan words this law can be broken...
In our language there are 25 consonants (samit), that 23 of them put into letters. They also divided into two parts:

kar samitlər- voiceless consonant: (b), (v), (q), (ğ), (d), (j), (z), (y), (g), (c), (l), (m), (n), (r)
cingiltili samitlər- voiced consonants: (p), (f), (k), (x), (t), (ş), (s), (x), (k), (ç)

 
Note: In our alphabet there is not special letter to express sound (k) (voiceless equivalent  to voiced consonant (q)) in the words "komandir"(commander), "tank"(tank), "klub" (club) and consonant (x) (voiceless equivalent  to voiced consonant (y)) in the words "ipək"( silk), "çiçək"(flower), "məktəb" (school). These two sounds are shown with the letter k (voiceless equivalent  to voiced consonant (g))of the sound k in the word "kənd"( village), "tük"(hair), "şəkil"(picture). So in our language numbers of consonants are 25, in our alphabet number of consonants are 23.
Consonants
Stress  is saying one of the syllable more stronger than others in the word
 
 
Parts of speech, word activities, syntactical functions
According to Azerbaijan language morphology parts of speech is divided into two parts:
1. Base or main parts of speech (isim-the noun, sifət –the adjective, say-the numeral, əvəzlik-the pronoun, zərf-the adverb, fel- the verb)
2. Structural parts of speech (qoşma- the postposition, bağlayıcı-the conjuction, ədat- the particle, modal sözlər- modal or parenthetical words, nida- interjection)
 
The nouns have quantity-kəmiyyət, relation- mənsubiyyət, case-hal, inducative-xəbərlik categories. These categories belong to other substantivized (isimləşən) parts of speech.
 
In Azerbaijan language the noun has 6 cases (nominative case- adlıq hal, genitive case-yiyəlik hal, dative case-yönlük hal, accusative case-təsirlik hal, local case-yerlik hal, exit case -çıxışlıq hal), the verb has 5 tenses (, the past  indefinite tense-şühudi keçmış zaman, the past declarative tense-nəqli keçmiş zaman, the present tense-indiki zaman ,the future definite tense-qəti gələcək zaman, the future indefinite tense-qeyri-qəti gələcək zaman).
The verb`s form category includes 6 moods (imperative-əmr, optative-arzu, condition-şərt, necessary or important -vacib, essential-lazım, indicative-xəbər)
On account of subject, object, action the verbs can be used in 5 different grammatical voices (active-məlum, passive-məchul, reflexive-qayıdış, mutual- common- qarşılıqlı müştərək, causative-səbəb) 
 
 
In each language word and sentence stableness have connection with one law that belongs to it. Collection of these laws is called language grammar.
Simple sentence consists of main parts of the sentence- predicative and subject. Exp: O gəlir (he comes)
Composite sentence differs form simple sentence for its structure.... This is determination of composite sentence: combine of two or more simple sentences in the meaning and grammar side  is called composite sentence. Simple sentence has one grammar, but composite sentence has two or more grammatical structures. Exp the sentences as
göy guruldadı- It thundered
yağış yağdı- It rained
yaz gəlir-Spring comes
təbiət oyanır- Nature wakes
quşalırın səsi eşidilir- Voices of the birds are heard are simple sentences consist of only subject and predicative. Combine of these sentences can make composite sentence.məsələn- example:
göy guruldadı və yağış yağdı- It thundered  and rained.
yaz gəlir, təbiət oyanır, quşların səsi eşidilir- Spring comes, nature wakes, voices of the birds are heard 
 
 
In Azerbaijan language writing has been led in the Arabic language till 1929. In 1929-1939 writing has been led under Latin graphical alphabet, in 1939-1991 under Cyrillic alphabet, since 1991 in the Arabic language again.
In Azerbaijan alphabet conjugations and their equivalents
 
 

Numbers
0.sıfır 1.bir 2.iki 3.üç 4.dörd 5.beş 6.altı 7.yeddi 8.səkkiz 9.doqquz 10.on. For numbers 11-19, the numbers literally mean 'ten one, ten two' and so on. 20.iyirmi 30.otuz 40.qırx 50.əlli
Basic expressions
yes - bəli | no - yox | hello - salam | goodbye - xudahafiz | good morning - sabahınız xeyir | good evening - günortanız xeyir | good night - axşamınız xeyir
Colours
black - qara | blue - göy | brown - qəhvəyi | grey - boz | green - yaşıl | orange - narıncı | pink - çəhrayı | purple - bənövşəyi | red - qırmızı | white - ağ | yellow - sarı


read carefully if  you don`t understand anything ask me please and I will explain it  to you with great pleasure 

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