Site Feedback

finals (simplified Chinese: 韵母; traditional Chinese: 韻母; pinyin: yùnmǔ)

In each cell below, the first line indicates IPA, the second indicates pinyin for a standalone (no-initial) form, and the third indicates pinyin for a combination with an initial. Other than finals modified by an -r, which are omitted, the following is an exhaustive table of all possible finals.1

The only syllable-final consonants in standard Mandarin are -n and -ng, and -r, which is attached as a grammatical suffix. Chinese syllables ending with any other consonant is either from a non-Mandarin language (southern Chinese languages such as Cantonese, or minority languages of China), or it indicates the use of a non-pinyin Romanization system (where final consonants may be used to indicate tones).

Final Medial
Nucleus Coda Ø i u y
a Ø [ɑ]
a
-a
[i̯a]
ya
-ia
[u̯a]
wa
-ua
 
i [aɪ̯]
ai
-ai
  [u̯aɪ̯]
wai
-uai
 
u [ɑʊ̯]
ao
-ao
[i̯ɑʊ̯]
yao
-iao
   
n [an]
an
-an
[i̯ɛn]
yan
-ian
[u̯an]
wan
-uan
[y̯ɛn]
yuan
-üan 2
ŋ [ɑŋ]
ang
-ang
[i̯ɑŋ]
yang
-iang
[u̯ɑŋ]
wang
-uang
 
ə Ø [ɤ]
e
-e
[i̯ɛ]
ye
-ie
[u̯ɔ]
wo
-uo/-o 3
[y̯œ]
yue
-üe 2
i [eɪ̯]
ei
-ei
  [u̯eɪ̯]
wei
-ui
 
u [oʊ̯]
ou
-ou
[i̯oʊ̯]
you
-iu
   
n [ən]
en
-en
[in]
yin
-in
[u̯ən]
wen
-un
[yn]
yun
-ün 2
ŋ [əŋ]
eng
-eng
[iŋ]
ying
-ing
[u̯əŋ], [ʊŋ] 4
weng
-ong
[i̯ʊŋ]
yong
-iong
Ø [ɨ]

-i
[i]
yi
-i
[u]
wu
-u
[y]
yu
2

1 [ɑɻ] (而, 二, etc.) is written er. For other finals formed by the suffix -r, pinyin does not use special orthography; one simply appends -r to the final that it is added to, without regard for any sound changes that may take place along the way. For information on sound changes related to final -r, please see Standard Mandarin.
2 "ü" is written as "u" after j, q, x, or y.
3 "uo" is written as "o" after b, p, m, or f.
4 It is pronounced [ʊŋ] when it follows an initial, and pinyin reflects this difference.

Technically, i, u, ü without a following vowel are finals, not medials, and therefore take the tone marks, but they are more concisely displayed as above. In addition, ê [ɛ] (欸, 誒) and syllabic nasals m (呒, 呣), n (嗯, 唔), ng (嗯) are used as interjections.

From : wikipedia

Share:

Comments

No comment given.

Add a comment