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When someone gains something happy and I wish to say something like "Good for you!" in a good way, how do you express that?
I've heard a phrase that sounds somethine like "cho-get-da" but can't find it in Hangeul on Google. Any ideas?
I'm not sure what it is specifically that you've heard, but 좋게 (joh-geh) means "well" (adj. I think) and that looks a bit like "cho-get." I think 잘했다 (jal-haet-da) can also be used to mean "you did well." 잘했어요 (jal-haess-eo-yo) is more formal/polite, and 잘했습니다 is honorific.
The closest thing I think to what you actually want is something like congratulations. 축하해요 (chook-ha-hae-yo) is the informal polite way to say this (you can take the '-yo' off the end if you're talking with a close friend or a hubae/dongsaeng), and 축하합니다 (chook-ha-hap-ni-da) is honorific.
"I'm really happy for you" --> 너를 위해 정말 잘됐어 (neo-neun wi-hae jeong-mal jal-dwaess-eo)
I'm not a native 한국어 speaker and I'm still learning, so maybe someone with more experience with the language has something else/better to offer ^^
*side note, you may have heard the expression for happy birthday, 생일축하합니다 (saeng-il-chook-ha-hap-ni-da), which is basically saying congratulations for the day you were brought to life.
**another side-note, what I thought of when I saw your "cho-get-da" is 죽겠다 (jook-get-da), which means "I'm dying!" (literal: I'm going to die). People use it a lot as exaggeration, like 배고파 죽겠다 (bae-go-pah jook-get-da), "I'm starving" / "I'm dying of hunger"