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관형어 means adnominal/attributive words or phrases. 관형어 can be 형용사(adjective), 관형사(prenoun), 소유격(possesive), or 형용사구(adjective phrase) in Korean language.
The functions of 관형어 are similar to the functions of adjective in English. In English, Adjective modify(describe) nouns and pronouns. In the same way, 관형어 modify 명사(noun), 대명사(pronoun), 의존명사(bound noun). In English, adjective tell which one, what kind, how many.
What is 의존명사(bound noun)? 의존명사 means bound nouns or dependant nouns. They cannot be used with alone, by themselves. They need something to descrbe themselves. For instance, "것" means a thing. What kind of thing? Whose thing? How many thing? '것' needs something to modify it.
In English, 동사의 형용사구(adjective form of verbal phrases) are made in many different ways, such as infinitives, participles, or gerunds. However, in Korean, 동사의 형용사구 absolutely are made by attaching 관형사형 어미, like "-ㄴ/은/는/던 or -ㄹ/을" to verb's stem.
In English, To-infinitives and gerunds are often used to make a noun phrase.
Gerunds are similar to noun form of verb, "-기" in Korean.
To-infinitives are similar to noun pharase, "-는 것" in Korean.
(thing) to sleep, 잠자는 것
a sleeping, 잠자-기
a way to study Korean. 한국어를 공부하는 방법.
Studying Korean. 한국어를 공부하-기.
But, sometimes, Gerund, in English, are translated into "-는 것", and To-infinitives into "-기".
Adagio - by New trolls.
Wishing you to be so near to me,
네가 내 곁에 있기를/(있을 것을) 바라지만,
Finding only my loneliness.
난 단지 내 외로움만 느껴져.
Waiting for the sun to shine again,
태양이 다시 빛나기를(빛날 것을) 기다리지만,
Find that it's gone to far away
태양은 멀리 가버리고 말았지.
To die, to sleep. May be to dream.
죽는 것은 잠자는 것, 어쩌면 꿈꾸는 것일지도 몰라.
Although 의존명사 is very important in Korean language, but Most of foreign learner may not know what 의존명사 is.