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I think many people learning Chinese by themselves have ever faced a trouble and even have no clue now, so this time I'll give some examples and discribe it as detailed as I can.
First,嗎and呢 are auxiliary words in Chinese,whose difference from some characters that 口 on the left is that they're kinda wh-word in Chinese and here are some example.
嗎 is the word you'll add it after a normal sentence that is describing something to form a question, and the answer must be yes or no,wrong or right,does or doesn't and something like these.
你是豬!(You are a pig)→你是豬嗎？(Are you a pig?)→你不是豬嗎?(Aren't you a pig?)
你是誠實的(You are honest.)→你是誠實的嗎?(Are you honest?) but actually we'll use 你(是)誠實(的)嗎?In this situation 是+adj+的 is just like a be verb and kinda making sure, and it's strange but the 是.....的 can be left out when asking.(You can keep it, because it's totally right,too, but not so often used.)Another way is really common:你說真的?It would be a long way to explain this sentence and it's a little out of our topic, so maybe someone can ask me by comments.
你這樣做是對的(It's right of you to do this)→你這樣做對嗎?(Is it right of you to do this?)
你在喝酒(you are drinking)→你在喝酒嗎?(Are you drinking?)
And 酒 means wine, beer or any beverage that contains alchohol, though this things got detailed name but we don't speak it in usual.
你好漂亮(You are so beautiful)→你好漂亮嗎?. 你+好+adj(not including the situation some other words are added to prolong this sentence) will never exist in a question.好 seems that you've known how the thing you describe goes and already had an opinion or a prejudice on it, so it would be weird if you ask someone whether it is so adj.
Then it's 呢's turn.Ain't like 嗎，呢 can form sentence for not only question but also description. But here only the question function is mentioned: 呢+noun means the same as"how about/what about"+ noun or "Where is/am/are +noun now/at that time". You might think it's weird.They are quite different.Anyway it depends on when you say it, so my example is a conversation.
甲:「你最近過的怎麼樣?」how have you been these days.
乙：「我很好，你呢？」I'm fine,and you?(I'm fine,and what about you?)
※This mustn't be"where are you?"
Imagine a coversation like that:
"How have you been these days?"
"I'm fine.Where are you now."
"I'm in front of you."
I guess our lives are not so weird.
甲：「你媽呢？」Where is your mom now?
※If some says this sentence out of the blue or you can tell it's related to how your conversation goes.Then it must be where is your mom now?(If question in Chinese doesn't emphasis the tense it's often be now,but I have say that-- it depends)
Well it's really long and thanks for your reading:)
Did not quite understand the use of (的 - de)would be as an adjective, but at the same time the use is not mandatory?
Could you give me more examples?
I can not understand well. For example I can say this sentence: 中国 是 很难 的!
I use "in" or not? No he is right?
And thanks for Lucitah's comment.