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What new grammatical concepts must you use in English (or in another language that you're learning)?

I'm curious about what people find challenging when learning English grammar, and how their native languages are different. 

I originally wrote this discussion asking about what people find challenging when learning English, but I completely reworded it to include other languages. Also, when I'm answering a question about English, it'd be a lot be a lot easier if I knew how the asker's native language does it differently, if at all.


So basically: 

What distinctions, concepts or structures are in your native language that aren't made in a language that you're learning (or that you know), or vice-versa? What does your language do differently? 


Here's a few really quick examples comparing German and English, to give you an idea:

-To an English speaker, declensions are an entirely new concept. Declensions are endings of adjectives that vary depending on the corresponding noun's gender, case and some other factors. For example, 'blau' (blue) can become 'blaue', 'blaues', 'blauen' etc. depending on the the aforementioned factors. 

-German and English both have articles, but sometimes use them differently. For example, when...

-German doesn't differentiate between continuous and simple tenses. For example, "Ich spiele die Gitarre" can mean both "I play the guitar" and "I'm playing the guitar." When I speak German, I don't need to worry about the difference between the two.  If I really want to emphasise one over the other, I can use adverbs like 'oft', 'jetzt', 'gerade' etc.


A German speaker might say the opposite: that when speaking English they don't need to consider declensions, but they do need to think about whether to use present simple or present continuous.



The differences can be as major or as subtle as you'd like. They don't necessarily have to be conceptually challenging, just different. Feel free to use as much detail as you need! 



As a native English speaker I can tell you that the tense means a lot to people. They will definetly correct you if you use the tense or use an incorrect ending such as "I speaked English" when it is "I spoke English". It can get confusing, because the first one doesn't sound too wrong but it is.


For me, I have a hard time in German with things changing when reffering to "direct subject". I am confident I can figure it out. Most of all though, I get frusterated and remember genders of nouns. I don't even understand why languages have this, lol!

Croatian is very different from English (you, Jmat, know that because you learn it and you wrote on some other discussion about that).

The easiest thing in Croatian is reading. You read exactly as it is written. Always. The same letter is pronounced always on the same way.

We have 7 cases, we change verbs through persons and tenses (and we don't have any schema to do it so it's not easy to know endings of every verb - the same is with nouns and cases).

We have 3 gender (musculine, femenime and neuter).

We don't have articles and we don't have so much tenses. We have 4 past tenses but we use only one.

We don't change tenses when we change quoted sentences into reported ones. 


I've got problems in English and in Spanish with almost everything that we don't have in Croatian (articles, so much tenses, direct/indirect speech...).


And we don't have "real" subjunctive mode so it is very difficult when someone is learning Spanish.

l  am  student  learning  English  at  school,and  l think  l  have  known some  mistakes when  we  are  speaking  English.

l  see  those  common  mistakes  like:l  like  play  basketball,l  want  play  basketball,she  want  to  speak  English  with  you,l can  do  good  thing  ,and many  wrong  sentences  in  our English  classes.

The  biggest  difference  between  English  and  Chinese  is  that  we  dont  need  to  change   tenses  and  verbs  according  the  subject,we  just  add  an  adverbial  in  a  sentence  to express  the  tense,and  we  also  dont  change  the  verb,l ,you,he,she,and  it  use  the  same  verb!

Sometimes  we  are  trying  to   speak  English  without   the  influence  of Chinese,but  we  know  our  language  longer than  the  language  we  are  learning,so  l do not  think  l  could get  rid  of  the  inflyence  of  Chinese.

lf  l  make  some  grammar  mistakes,please  help  me  correct  them,thank  you very  much!

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