Making Nouns and Adjectives Plural (spanish)
The basic rule: The rule that you follow most of the time is roughly the same as the rule in English: If a word ends in a consonant, add -es. If it ends in an unaccented vowel, simply add an -s. In Spanish, y is treated as a consonant for purposes of pluralization.
- Examples: un árbol (one tree), dos árboles (two trees), el actor (the actor), los actores (the actors), el hotel (the hotel), los hoteles (the hotels), un taco (a taco), dos tacos (two tacos), un perro (a dog), tres perros (three dogs), un rey (a king), cuatro reyes (four kings).
Orthographic changes: Some words follow the general rule in terms of pronunciation, but a change in either a letter or an accent mark is needed. In plurals of words that end in -z, the -z changes to -ces for the plural. And if the addition of -es would change which syllable gets the accent, an accent is either dropped or added.
- Examples: el juez (the judge), los jueces (the judges), una vez (once), dos veces (twice), el inglés (the Englishman), los ingleses (the Englishmen), la canción (the song), las canciones (the songs), el examen (the exam), los exámenes, the exams.
- Examples: el rubí (the ruby), los rubíes (the rubies), el hindú (the Hindu), los hindúes (the Hindus), el café (the coffee), los cafés (the coffees).
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