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Article "a" (an). Indefinite article.
It came from the word "one" and is aimed to show that subject is one of many others. We use indefinite article in following cases:
1. When we speak about some thing first time
2. When we classificate something or want to show a class of subjects. E.g. "a dog is the man's best friend"
3. When we mean "one" to count something, e.g. "a (one) million dollars" or "give me a (one) beer"
We use this article only with countable singular nouns.

Article "the". Definite article.
It was derived from the word "this/that". We use it to specify the subject that we are talking about. We use "the" in following cases:
1. If we have spoke about the subject before, or we can obviously understand about what thing we are speaking from context or situation.
2. Before superlatives or counts (the best, the longest, the first etc.)
3. Before names of parts of the world, gegrafic subjects,
4. Befor things which are only ones (the galaxy, the sun, the great wall etc.)

We don't use articles if:
1. The word have very common sence,
2. Before names of counties, sities, lakes etc.
3. Before names of parts of a year
4. We speak about transport, food or places wich we use according to it's function

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