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This is really helpful, and good English too! 努力！
The Rules of Learning Pinyin
If you want to read Chinese characters as accurately as a native speaker, you may need to understand the phonetics of Pinyin first. Today, I'd like to show you some basic (regulations...rules is a better word here, although regulations is not wrong. When we talk about language better to say rules.) of pronouncing Chinese. Pinyin is composed of two parts, which are 'Initials' and 'Finals'. However, there are three kinds of finals, Singel finals, Compound finals, Nasal finals. (1) 21 Initials are below: b [p] p [pʰ] m [m] f [f] d [t] t [tʰ] z [ʦ] c [ʦʰ] s [s] n [n] l [l] j [ʨ] q [ʨʰ] x [ɕ] zh [ʈ͡ʂ] ch [ʈ͡ʂʰ] sh [ʂ] r [ʐ/ɻ] g [k] k [kʰ] h [x] (2) 39 Finals are below: Singel finals: ɑ [ɑ] o [ǫ] e [ɤ] ê [ɛ] i [i] u [u] ü [y] er [əɻ/ɐɻ] -i（si,zi ci） [ɿ] -i（zhi chi shi ri） [ʅ] Compound finals: ɑi [aɪ] ei [eɪ] ɑo [ɑʊ] ou [oʊ] iɑ [iɑ] ie [iɛ] uɑ [uɑ] uo [uǫ] üe [yɛ] iɑo [iɑʊ] i(o)u [iəʊ] uɑi [uaɪ] u(e)i [ueɪ] Nasal finals: ɑn [an] en [ən] in [in] ün [yn] iɑn [iɛn] uɑn [uan] üɑn [yɛn] u(e)n [uən] ɑnɡ [ɑŋ] enɡ [ɤŋ] inɡ [iŋ/iəŋ] onɡ [ʊŋ] iɑnɡ [iɑŋ] uɑnɡ [uɑŋ] uenɡ [uɤŋ] ionɡ [yŋ/iʊŋ] Based on above, please keep in mind an important formula: Pinyin = Initial+Singel final/Compound final/Nasal final. For example: n+i=ni (Initial+Singel final) ; 妮（nˉi） 泥(nˊi) 你(nˇi) 逆(nˋi); 妮子 泥巴 你好 逆天 b+ao=bao (Initial+Compound final); 包 (bˉao) 雹(bˊao) 宝(bˇao) 抱(bˋao) 包子 冰雹 宝贝 拥抱 g+uan=guan (Initial+Nasal final); 观(guˉan) 管(guˇan) 冠(guˋan) 观看 管理 冠名 r+ong= rong(Initial+Nasal final); 容(rˊong) 冗 (rˇong) 容易 冗长
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