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All about Korean Tences

 

1. Present Tense A/V-(스)ㅂ니다
The present tense of the formal polite style in Korean is made by adding -(스)니다.
가다(to go) 가 + -ㅂ니다 = 갑니다(Declarative), 가 + -ㅂ니까? = 갑니까?(Interrogative)
먹다(to eat) 먹 + 습니다 = 먹습니다(Declarative), 먹 + -습니까? = 먹습니까?(Interrogative)

2. Present Tense A/V-아/어요
1) -아요
* -아요 is added when the word stem ends in a consonant.
앉다(to sit) + 아요 = 앉아요.
* If the word stem ends in the vowel ㅏ, one ㅏ is deleted.
가다(to go) + 아요 = 가요
* If the word stem ends in a vowel, the following contraction can also occur.
오다(to come) + 아요 = 와요(오+ㅏ요 = 와요)
2) -어요
* -어요 is added when the word stem ends in a consonant.
읽다(to read) + 어요 = 읽어요
* If the word stem ends in the vowel ㅐ, ㅓ, or ㅕ then the 어 of 어요 is deleted.
보내다(to send) + 어요 = 보내요
* If the word stem ends in the vowel ㅜ, then ㅜ and the 어 of 어요 combine to form ㅝ.
배우다(to learn) + 어요 = 배워요
* When the word stem ends in the vowel ㅣ, ㅣ and the 어 of 어요 combine to form ㅕ.
마시다(to drink) + 어요 = 마셔요
3) -여요 = 해요
When the predicate ends in 하다, it is changed to 해요.(하여요 - 해요)
말하다(to speak) = 말해요
4) 예요/이에요
The verb 이다 changes to 예요/이에요
* When the noun ends in a vowel : 의사(doctor)예요(의사 + 예요)
* When the noun ends in a consonant : 회사원(worker)이에요(회사원 + 이에요)

3. Past Tense A/V-았/었어요
* Word stem ends in ㅏ or ㅗ : -았어요
앉다(to sit) + -았어요 = 앉았어요
* Word stem ends in vowel other than ㅏ or ㅗ : -었어요
먹다(to eat) + -었어요 = 먹었어요
* Word ends in 하다 : 했어요
공부하다 = 공부했어요

4. Future Tense V-(으)ㄹ 거예요
* Word stem ends in vowel or ㄹ: -ㄹ 거예요
가다(to go) + -ㄹ 거예요 = 갈 거예요
* Verb stem ends in consonant : -을 거예요
먹다(to eat) + -을 거예요 = 먹을 거예요

5. Progressive Tense V-고 있다/있었다(past)
* 가다(to go) + -고 있다 = 가고 있다(I am going)
먹다(to eat) + -고 있었다 = 먹고 있었다(I was eating)

6. Past Perfect Tense A/V-았/었어요
* Verb stem ends in vowel ㅏ or ㅗ : -았었어요
살다(to live) + -았었어요 = 살았었어요
* Verb stem ends in vowel other than ㅏ or ㅗ : -었었어요
먹다(to live) + -었었어요 = 먹었었어요
* Verb ends in 하다
공부하다(to study) = 공부했었어요

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