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You are a beginner as I can see and probably you don't understand your mistakes. Thus, I'll try to give you an explaination for them.
Nazywam się Kate.
The phrase 'nazywam się' is rather more appropriate when using a first name plus surname or you can even give only the latter. If you want to introduce yourself by giving merely your first name you should say 'Mam na imię Kate'.
Dzisiaj jest pada deszcz.
What you've written here literally means 'Today is rains.' (I intentionally wrote this wrong to make you see how it would awkwardly sound in English). I suppose you wanted to use a progressive verb form like in English (Today it's raining) and thus you translated it by adding the irrelevant third singular form of the verb 'be'. In Polish tenses don't work the same as in English. For instance you can say 'Zwykle jesienią pada deszcz.' (Usually it rains in autumn.) and 'Dzisiaj pada deszcz.' (Today it's raining.). As you see, in both sentences in Polish examples tenses are the same, while in English they're different. Thus, you should've written 'Dzisiaj pada deszcz'.
Poszedłem im kino z moj kolega.
Here you've written 'I went them cinema with my friend.' 'To go to the cinema' in Polish is 'iść do kina'. 'do'='to'. But mistaking a preposition is not a problem at all in comparison with the cases. In Polish we have, unfortunately for all foreigners attempting to learn this language, 6 cases (strictly saying even 7) and it must be extremely hard to comprehend them, especially when in one's native language there are virtually not cases at all. So, in my opinion, the best way to cope with them is to learn by heart the phrases or contexts in which a word functions. Then, you should remember, that 'cinema' = 'kino', but 'to go to the cinema' ='iść do kina'; 'my friend' = 'mój kolega (male)', but 'to go somewhere with my friend' = 'iść gdzieś z moim kolegą'. So, to sum up, the correct sentence sounds like this: 'Poszedłem do kina z moim kolegą'. Unfortunately, there's also the problem of sex. In English phrase 'I went' the subject can be either a man or a woman. In Polish the form of verbs can be different for males and females. 'I went' = '(Ja) poszedłem' = '(Ja) poszłam'. The difference consists in the fact that 'poszedłem' is said by a man and 'poszłam' - by a woman. So if you had mentioned to tell this sentence about you, you definitely should've said 'Poszłam do kina z moim kolegą'.
Hope I helped you a little. Don't give up and go ahead! :)
Nazywam się Kate. Mam na imię Kate.Dzisiaj jest pada deszcz. Poszedłem im kino z moj kolega. Poszłam do kina z moim kolegą.
I wish you a pleasant experience in the cinema. :)
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