हिन्दी वर्णमाला "hindi alphabet" in Hindi
Some borrowed words (from Persian and Urdu language) have sounds not available in Hindi, for such words nukta (dot under the consonant) is used for consonants k, kh, g, yn, f etc. Many newspapers, writers consider using nukta optional. For some words like doctor, borrowed from English, .o ऑ is used to add .o sound to consonant.
k.x क़ sound of guttural "k", similar to sound of "q"
kh.x ख़ sound of guttural "kh", similar to sound of "kh" in khan
g.x ग़ sound of guttural "g"
j.x ज़ variation of sound j ज
z.x झ़ variation of sound z झ
xn.x ङ़ variation of "xn" "ङ्" , difficult to produce in English
dhv.x ढ़ variation of "dhv" "ढ्" , difficult to produce in English as in see-dhv.xee सीढ़ी (ladder)
f.x फ़ variation of "f", similar to sound of "f" in fast
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yes, you are correct. But I believe, since sounds with nukta are actually foreign sounds, local dialects/people use closest available sounds available in native dialect.
original word is ग़रीब ghareeb poor
we all say गरीब. To my perception ग़ to commoner become khalis Urdu :D. Very sophisticated pronunciaction.
Similarly,जहाज़ is correct/original pronunciation
but we say जहाज in common tongue. Perfectly acceptable.
Regarding O ऑ as in doctor
I have seen people from village or older people say डाक्टर only. Similary डॉक्टर is also abundantley used.
For some words you can say it is localization of the pronunciation or 'hindikaran'.
e.g. academy - अकादमी
फ़ is abundantely used, and yes you may not find nukta here.
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