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When do you use 了/儿?

When do you use these two? I kind of know what le is for but I see it being used all the time in different things.
Where as er, I just don't understand when you use it.

For learning: Chinese (Mandarin)
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    了 is being uesd when you want to say something in past tense; and we usually put it at the end of sentence. For examples:
    他走了- He left
    他来了- He came or He has come
    我做完我的作业了- I finished my homework.

    儿 is being used in some informal conversation or by the people from the north part of China; and we also put it at the end of sentences, mostly, which are interrogative. For example:
    你在哪儿? - Where are you?
    However, we do not use 儿 in formal conversation, even though it is the conversation between two northern people.

    儿means that a action u have already done ,just such as:他走了,he left。

    了:助词
    1.用在动词或形容词后, 表示动作或变化已经完成
    read twice;
    读了两遍
    Apples got red.
    苹果红了。
    2.用在句子的末尾或句中停顿处, 表示变化, 表示出现新的情况, 表示催促或劝止
    The spring comes and peach blossoms [flowers] are all open.
    春天了, 桃花都开了。
    I don't go out whenever it rains.
    天一下雨, 我就不出门了。



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