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Some questions about noun clauses

Actually no one has ever taught me this kind of grammar . I learnt it from books&conversations. Therefore, I got some questions that I want you guys to solve them.
1) Can the following sentences be exchanged? Tell me the reason, why or why not .
a. This is a dumb question that I don't wanna answer.
b. This is a dumb question which I don't wanna answer.
My opinion is that "that" can replace all the words that start with "wh". Is that correct?
2) what kind of tense I should use after that/wh-. Is there anything I must follow?
3) I know "the one" can be meant for everything. So which word should I use after " the one"? "that?who?which?" or it depends on the context?
Thank you guys so much!!
By the way, I found that teachers don't teach students grammar even in united states. They just give me lots of assignments and I have to learn it by myself.

For learning: English
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Best Answer - Chosen by the Asker
    I'll clarify a couple of things...

    1) NO. You cannot just swap "that" and "which" as you wish. This is where learners start making mistakes. This is how you decide:

    - does the clause describe the last thing you mentioned? Use that/which.
    - What if I remove the descriptive clause? If the meaning changes (or stops making sense), use "that". If you can cut out the clause and the sentence still makes sense, use "which".
    - never confuse a sentence that begins with "that" with a clause that begins with "that". If you're not sure, cut them into two sentences. Do they make sense? Then use two sentences.

    2) Eliot is right; give it the tense as normal. No special treatment here.

    3) Yes. it relies on the context. Is the thing human? Use "who".

    Quick correction: "They just gave me lots of assignments and I had to learn it by myself."

    You use 'that ' before a restrictive clause and 'which' before everything else.

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