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Some questions about speaking korean (mainly grammar)

I know that you can end sentences different ways to be respectful or casual. I know that ending with 요 is respectful and I heard that ending with 습니다 is even more respectful. But sometimes I hear people use these interchangeably while still talking to the same person. 1. Why do they switch them up? 2. Which one should I use when I first meet someone and say hello? 3. Which one should a student use in an essay? 4. How to address your boss?

I also hear sentences that end with 이, can anyone verify when and why it is used?

Thank you in advance ^_^

For learning: Korean
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    1. Why do they switch them up?
    I mostly likely never use -(니)다 when speaking, except when having an interview or when giving a presentation in university.
    I switch them when I want to sound not too boring or too strict for an audience.
    There might be more reasons though.

    2. Which one should I use when I first meet someone and say hello?
    안녕하세요 and ending with -요 are fine if it's not a business or the like.
    -(니)다 has more nuance of strictness and formalness.

    3. Which one should a student use in an essay?
    I recommend -(니)다 style.
    We use -(니)다 more often in literary style than in spoken language.

    4. How to address your boss?
    -(니)다 might fit better in many situations with your boss.


    About the sentences that end with 이, I can't think of any now.
    Can you give me an example?


    1. Why do they switch them up?
    I try not to mix '-ㅂ니다' and '-요' in writing for coherent flow of idea, but despite myself, I mix them up sometimes. Moreover, I quite very often switch one ending expression to the other ending expression when I use them vocally in everyday conversation.

    2. Which one should I use when I first meet someone and say hello?
    안녕하십니까 is good expression if you are going to give a speech on platform to many people, and for formal and very respectful and polite tone in the expression itself.
    안녕하세요. is better expression than 안녕하십니까 when you meet a small group of people or person face to face.

    3. Which one should a student use in an essay?
    I would use '-이다' for ending each sentence in essays.

    4. How to address your boss?
    attach '-님' after your superior's or boss's position for politeness.
    Like this way:사장님(boss), 매니저님(manager)

    And regarding your last question. I suppose you wanted to ask why '-이' is attached after someone's name or words addressing someone.

    '-이' is used after someone's name if the person is very close to and acquainted with you, and it can be used only if the person is very close to you and if you are not in your work, whereas '-님' should be used for politeness in your work and for addressing people you are not acquainted with. I think '-이' is interchangeable with '-아' in this context.
    examples:Hey 아람!='아람'이!=아람아! , Hey 다정!='다정'이!=다정아!

    Keep on your Korean study! :)

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