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Why certain questions has particles? Example;이것이 (이게) and 이것 (이거)

Why certain questions has particles? Example;

이것이 (이게) 무엇입니까?

or

이거 어려워요?

When to use 이것이 (이게), 이것 (이거), 이것은 (이건) and 이것을 (이걸) in a sentence whether it's declarative or interrogative sentence?

For learning: Korean
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    이것이 무엇이죠? 이게 무엇이죠? 이것은 무엇이죠? , 이건 무엇이죠? ;
    다 같은 의미이며 주어가 무엇인지를 묻는 의미입니다.

    이것을(이걸) 은
    이것을 어떻게 사용하죠? 이걸 어떻게 사용하죠? ; 를(을)이 붙이면 목적어가 됩니다.
    예) 나는 이것을 음식 재료로 사용합니다. 나는 이걸 목도리 대신 사용합니다.

    이것 is not a participle or a form of a verb. It's similar to a pronoun and a determiner, which are used for indicating a object instead of mentioning specific name.
    -이, -을, -은 decides function of the nouns or form of a Korean noun in sentences
    -이,-은 is for making the subject function in a sentence. 이것이, 이것은 act as subjects in sentences.
    -을 is for object.
    이것=this 저것=that
    이것이 (이게) 무엇입니까?
    =이것은(이건) 무엇입니까?
    =What is this?


    present participles are -이다, -다, -입니다,-이에요...
    present progressive participles are ~고있다, ~중이다~고있어요,~중이에요,~고있습니다,~고있습니다...
    -었다, -였었다, -었었다 belong to past participle or past perfect participle, but the distinction between past participle and past perfect participle in Korean is so vague that people nearly don't differentiate them in real life.

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