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What is the function of 겠 in 알겠다 & 모르겠다?

 

I don't understand the difference between 알다 & 알겠다, and 모르다 & 모르겠다. It seems that in some situations one is more natural than the other, but why? ㅠ

An example I saw: (http://koreanlanguagenotes.blogspot.com.au/2009/09/why-do-koreans-say_14.html)
A: 오늘 저녁 같이 먹자
B: 미안, 다른 친구랑 만나기로 했어
A: 알겠어/알았어

Even the site I just referenced, had conflicting views on the usage of verbs with 겠. So, can someone please explain the nuances of 알다, 알겠다, 모르다 & 모르겠다.

Another example from a conversation I had with a friend was:
"걔한테 이메일 할 때 뭐라고 해야할지 몰라" (what I originally wrote)
But they said a more natural way to say it is, "걔한테 이메일 할 때 뭐라고 해야할지 모르겠어". So, what is the difference between using 몰라 & 모르겠어.


ㅋㅋ 도와 주세요! 제발~~

Additional Details:

I forgot to add, in the first example I'm assuming they were a native Korean speaker, said that "알겠어" is more appropriate/natural in that situation because "알았어" as a reply sounds bitter or gives the feeling of being 삐지다...It seems that 겠 plays a big role in expressing yourself

For learning: Korean
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    I dont know proper explanation even though I am Korean. we just use that way^^
    in my humble opnion 알다 모르다 is original form of verb. 알다 I know 모르다 I dont know
    알겠다 I became to know 모르겠다 I became not to know
    I guess there are not much difference. You should read other explanation.T.T


    I think the differens inasmuch as nuance is because of verb or adjective endings(어미).
    Ending -겠- in 알겠어 represents willingness or will of speaker.
    Ending -았- in 알았어 represents it affects something so far.
    Thus, it's your choice how to make a nuance between 'willingness or will' and 'effect on present'.
    알다, 모르다 are bare infinitives, so they don't have anything special nuance except for their meanings.
    알다(know) 모르다( don't/doesn't know)
    몰라 is the conjuagated form of 모르다 into which stem '모르-'and ending '-아', technically 종결어미, is conjugated.
    종결어미 -아/-어 is used in 해체(informal and non-honorific register in relative honorific system[상대높임법]) for describing, for asking, or for ordering, for suggesting something.
    Fore reference, 한글맞춤법 article 16, section 2, chapter 4 (9. 어간의 끝음절 ‘르’의 ‘ㅡ’가 줄고, 그 뒤에 오는 어미 ‘-아/-어’가 ‘-라/-러’로 바뀔 적) 모르-+-아->모ㄹ-+-라->몰라
    -겠- in 모르겠어 is ending representing ability(it is also represents possibility).
    Thus, mostly, 모르겠어 is used in the situation when you don't know how to do something. When you think you can use '모르겠어' instead of '몰라', it's more natural to use '모르겠어' than '몰라'.

    알다 and 모르다 are the original form of verb.
    That is the symbol of some movement.
    All Korean verbs have the original form.
    In English, it can be used without any change but We Korean doesn’t use just the original form except few.

    We make various style verb based original form.
    Giving little change to verb, you can control the tense, strength and weakness, nuance, monologue.
    Even you can express your emotion and listener’s emotion too.

    안녕 xtinee^^

    저는 진짜 한국사람인 만큼...
    as I am a native speaker korean...

    그냥 간단히 얘기해서,
    I must simply say,

    알다, 모르다 are original verbs.
    so you would not say or use them often.
    they are just descriptive words. not for speaking. never using for speaking.
    even you never say it in a book by written korean.
    I think, only you can see them in a korean dictionary.


    알았어, 알았다, 알겠어, 알겠다 are the same meaning.
    몰라, 모르겠다 are the same meaning.
    I don't know the difference of between them. and No Need to knowing the difference.
    If i try, can make the difference but I'm not sure that's correct meaning in Korean grammar.
    and also I'm very very sure 99.9999%, they are the same meaning. If someone use them differently with one's exact intention, the meaning only accepted, is just "OK, I see, I got it".
    What's the differences of "OK, I see, I got it"? ^^;
    So, that's why I simply suggest you, that they are just the same meaning.
    even if there is a different nuance, It would depend on that how listener feeling when listener hear the word.
    also, the nuance more depending how you sound or how you are saying with some intonation.

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