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Difference between: dir and dich; mir and mich; deine and deines???

Hi. I still get very confused easily by mir vs mich, dir vs dich etc. My friend explained that it's to do with something nominative, accusative, dative and genetiv (which i don't really know what these terminologies mean in English, even i speak fluent English).

1. Can anyone try to explain some rules, by which i will be able to use them correctly? Maybe some extra examples to illustrate?

i.e mir helfen (why not "mich helfen"?, isn't "me" the direct object of the action "helping"?)
i.e Mir geht es gut. Why mir?

2. Are there any English equivalents for these cases? My friend said I can not always find analogies from English for German grammar.

But is it like "nominative=subject of sentence" "accusative=direct object" "dative=indirect object" and what is genitive for?

Thank you very much!!
Liebe Gruesse

For learning: German
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Best Answer - Chosen by Voting
    Nomen und Pronomen haben im Deutsch 4 Fälle (Kasus), um das richtige Personalpronomen zu finden, wandelst du den Satz in eine Frage um.

    Nominativ - Wer? oder Was?
    z.B. ich bin hungrig. --> WER ist hungrig? --> ich

    Genitiv - Wessen?
    z. B. Das ist dein Telefon. --> WESSEN Telefon ist das? --> mein

    Dativ - Wem?
    z. B. Ich wünsche dir alles Gute. --> WEM wünsche ich alles Gute? --> Dir

    Akkusativ - Wen?
    z.B. Ich rufe dich an --> WEN rufst du an? --> dich
    z.B. Mich interessiert das --< WEN interessiert das? --> mich


    Die Grammatik ist sehr schwierig, ich denke du musst es dir einfach einprägen. Vielleicht hilft dir dieser Link:

    http://www.deutschakademie.de/online-deutschkurs/dativ-akkusativ-erklaerung

    1)“Mir helfen”
    Können Sie mir helfen?
    Mir –dativ.
    Dativ - answer the questions – wem? (who) wo? (where)
    Try to ask a question to this sentence.
    To help who? (wem)
    That’s why “mir”.
    You have to learn 4 german cases.(Nominativ, Genitiv, dativ, Akkusativ)
    2) In German there are a lot of words with preposition.
    For example :
    interessieren sich (für +Akk )
    - Ich interessiere mich für den Sport.
    gratulieren (zu+ Dativ)
    - Ich gratuliere dir zum Geburtstag.

    You just need to learn this words with their direction.

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