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What is the difference between 了 and 过 after a verb?

For example: 我看了。 我看过。
我教了中文。 我教过中文。

What's the difference? Is there any other character after verb?

Thanks so much

For learning: Chinese (Mandarin)
Base language: English
Category: Other

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    了 => 語助詞. 表完成.
    过 => 曾經, or 己經完成

    了≈simple past
    过≈present perfect
    In reading, mostly you can follow this rule. In speaking or writing, pay attention to and imitate how native speakers use these two characters.

    我看了。 有種剛剛才看過的感覺,是短時間內剛完成的事情
    我看过。是整個過去經驗曾經做過的事情,是長時間累積有做過的事情。
    我教了中文。 比較少這樣說,因為教中文是一件比較大的狀態,很少會用"教了中文",可以說我剛剛才教了你中文
    我教过中文。表示妳過去曾教過過人家中文,是一種長時間下的狀態

    in terms of grammar
    For example:
    我看了。 = i saw
    我看过。 = i've seen

    我教了中文。 = i taught
    我教过中文。 = i've taught

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