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kong ko ako

can somebody explain to me what the difference between
Ako, ko, kong and
Ikaw, mo, mong, iyoung

When is it appropriate to use them?

For learning: Filipino (Tagalog)
Base language: English
Category: Other



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    Best Answer - Chosen by Voting
    Tagalog pronouns are divided into 3 categories: direct, indirect, oblique.

    Ako and ikaw/ka together with siya, fall under the Direct (singular).
    It marks the subject as the focus of the conversation.
    Nagbato ikaw/ka ng ballpen. = You tossed a ballpen. --> the focus is on "You"
    Ako ay si Green. = I am Green. --> the focus is on "I" me.

    Ko and mo together with niya, are under the Indirect (singular).
    It's a marker shifting the focus on the object instead.
    Binato mo yung ballpen. = You tossed the ballpen. --> the focus shifts on the ballpen itself.
    Sinalo ko yung ballpen. = I catched the ballpen.

    Iyo like akin and kaniya/kanya is under the Oblique (singular).
    It must be preceded by the place marker SA to indicate a beneficiary of an action.
    Binato mo yung ballpen sa akin. = You tossed the ballpen to me. --> I used "akin" (and not ako) to denote that I am the beneficiary of the action. Of course it must be preceded by "sa".
    Other examples:
    Regalo ko para sa iyo. = My gift for you.
    Nasa akin ang pera. = The money is with me.

    Moreover, oblique pronouns can be used as a genitive pronoun when SUCCEEDED by the word they modify, "sa" is omitted:
    Iyong ballpen = Your ballpen
    Aking bahay = My house

    *Kong and iyong are ko and iyo with the linker "-ng". When you see kong and iyong, you can be sure that they were used as genitives because of the presence "-ng" which is essential to link them to the words they modify.
    For more info about linkers, see:

    Note that Indirect pronouns can ALSO act as genitive pronoun when PRECEDED by the word they modify:
    Green ang pangalan ko. = Green is my name. --> the focus shifts on "Green" which happens to be my name.
    Other examples:
    Ballpen mo = Your ballpen
    Bahay ko = My house

    Phew! I hope I made it clear. ;)

    @sharlalaw Another easier way to distinguish the use of indirect from direct pronouns is this:

    Let's use the rootword "kagat" = bite

    "nakagat" = bit unintentionally
    Nakagat ako = I was bitten
    Nakagat ko = I bit

    "kinagat" = bit intentionally
    Kinagat ikaw/ka = You were bitten
    Kinagat mo = You bit


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