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What does "Por el que" mean here?

I have to do a translation assignment and I can't work out what "Por el que" means at the start of a sentence. I tried googling it but all the examples are in the middle of sentences, in which case it means "which", but it doesn't quite work here.

"Por el que son necesarios planes integrales contra la exclusión social de carácter transversal, que actúen en el conjunto de los sistemas y servicios del Estado del Bienestar."

For learning: Spanish
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Hi Nrweb,

    I agree with Mario and maybe the answer is in the previous paragraph. Then I'm giving you some examples with their English translations so you can see how it works:


    • Una biopsia es un procedimiento 'por el que' se extraen células o tejidos del cuerpo para analizarlos con un microscopio (A biopsy is a procedure performed to remove tissue or cells from the body for examination under a microscope).

    • El árbol está vacío por dentro, con un gran boquete 'por el que' frecuentemente pasan los turistas en coche para que les tomen una fotografía (The tree is empty inside, with a huge hole into which tourists often drive their cars to have their pictures taken).

    • Este fue el cometido 'por el que' nos hemos esforzado y sobre el cual hemos negociado (That was the brief which we stood up for and which we negotiated).

    • Este es el dilema interior 'por el que' todas las víctimas y testigos deben pasar (This is the inner dilemma which all victims and witnesses involve must go through).

    • Es un logro importante, 'por el que' yo encomio a los dos líderes (This is an important achievement, for which I commend the two leaders).


    Hope this helps.

    I think you are wrong, the sentence is "Por lo que". anyway. i´ll explain you both.

    "Por el que o Por lo que" makes a conection between a Reason o situation, problem that needs solution, and the means to get a solution

    Before "Por el qué" must a reason to do "son necesarios planes integrales contra" .

    Please read your text just before "por el que" and you'll give me the reason.

    Por el que son necesarios planes integrales contra la exclusión social de carácter transversal, que actúen en el conjunto de los sistemas y servicios del Estado del Bienestar."

    For example:

    Siria tiene armas químicas por lo que es necesaria una intervención internacional.

    Siria has chemical weapons THIS IS THE REASON
    POR LO QUE
    Es necesaria la intervención internacional THIS IS THE MEANS
    I would say: 'Wich is why...'. It makes more sense to me.

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