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Can anyone explain to me how to use the phrasal verb "leading to"?

So, I was doing some research for my english class and I found this sentence: "Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings leading to the establishment of nation-state and the conceptualization of democracy." Can somebody tell me whether the sentence is in its correct form and why ? or if it is not, can someone point out the mistakes of the author?

For learning: English
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Um, yes. There are some things that look like they may be typos, but no major mistakes in grammatical form.

    /Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings leading to the establishment of nation-state and the conceptualization of democracy.

    Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings leading to the establishment of nation-states and the conceptualization of democracy.

    (Only change was adding an “s” onto the end of “nation-state.” The other possible fix would be do add a “the” before “nation-state” to get “Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings leading to the establishment of the nation-state and the conceptualization of democracy.” Which doesn't quite work unless you're an anarchist and consider the nation-state to be a single entity.)

    To get at this sentence's meaning let's break it down. First thing is that there are two major clauses.
    /Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings

    And

    /leading to the establishment of nation-state and the conceptualization of democracy.

    The first clause is pretty straight forward. “Subsequently” means “after which...” And then it's just subject (the traditional European societies) verb (Underwent) object (Massive restructurings)

    The next part is relatively straight forward once you see that it uses the first part of the sentence. Another way to put it would be to end the first part of the sentence with a period. “ Subsequently, the traditional European societies underwent massive restructurings.” And then begin the next sentence with, “This lead to...” So that it would be, “This lead to the establishment of nation-state and the conceptualization of democracy.” Which is the same general grammatical form as “He ran to the park and then the bus stop.” Just with slightly more complex stuff going on.

    “Leading to” means, “This lead to” but it allows you to have a stronger connection between the two related (or, presumably, very related) concepts.

    I feel that it is fine, just very succinct and straight to the point. "Leading to" is like a transitional phrase that takes you from one situation to the next. In this case, the restructurings led to the 1) formation of nation states, and 2) the birth of democracy. So if I want to use "leading to" in a phrase, I can say, 'the lack of physical activities in one's daily life leading to obesity is a common theme in many modern societies.'

    If you want to use "lead to" in the above sentence, you would say, " ... restructurings which led to ...".

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