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Formality, politeness and respect in Korean language?

I have been learning Korean language quite a while now. But I am not sure that I have understood the speech levels and honorifics very clearly. To my knowledge, there are four speech levels that are commonly used (out of seven), one usually being used in the written texts (해라체). Those speech levels are used to show the speaker’s and the listener’s status among each other. While some levels can be impolite and informal, some are both polite and formal. Here is my first question: what exactly is this politeness and formality and how should I think of them when the rest of the speech levels are also considered?(1) Besides that, some speech levels indicate respect towards the speaker. However honorifics are also used for the same intention. If so, why honorifics are used in a low level like ”해체”-(해/하셔) if it is used to show respect or why you need to use them in “하십시오체”-(합니다/하십니다) which does already show the high respect?(2)...............

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In some places even if you use하십시오체, without honorific “시” it sounds rude. That is where I get confused. Also, I had heard that honorific infix “시” is used only when the subject of the sentence is any human being but the speaker. In this respect, you should use this infix to clarify whether you are talking about yourself or somebody else (because you can never use it when you refer to yourself). However in some cases I have seen this infix was not used when it was referring to the other person. Why is this and when can I omit honorific “시” ?(3)
Can you please explain the difference between,
* 해 * 해요 * 합니다
* 하셔 * 하세요 * 하십니다

I have already read many articles about this subject. However, I would like to make sure to use the right thing in the right place.

For learning: Korean
Base language: French
Category: Language

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    Best Answer - Chosen by the Asker
    The six speech levels of Korean language is called "Hearer honorific system(상대높임법)". The speech level is determined according to the person spoken to.

    Whereas, adding the ending(inffix), "-시-" to the final ending, is used to show respect to the person spoken about, so it is called "Subject honorifics(주체높임법)".

    And replacing the words for honorifics, such as 진지 instead of 식사, is called "Object honorifics(객체높임법)"

    If the person who you are speaking to is an elder person or a stranger, you should speak 존댓말, such as 합쇼체, 해요체 and honorifics with "-시-" . if not, you can speak 반말.

    손자: 할아버지, 진지(를) 잡수세요. (존댓말)
    (The word 진지 is a honorific word for 식사. and 잡수시다 for 먹다.)
    할아버지: 오냐, 알았다. (반말)

    할아버지: 노인정에 다녀오마.
    손자: 할아버지, 안녕히 다녀오세요.

    if the person who you are speaking about is the elder, you should use the honorific to show respect for him/her.

    When speaking to friends about one's grandfather.
    얘들아, 우리 할아버지께서는 연세가 많으시다. (연세 - 나이)
    얘들아, 우리 할아버지께서는 연세가 많으셔.

    When speaking to teacher about one's grandfather.
    선생님, 우리 할아버지께서는 연세가 많으셔요.(or 많으세요)
    선생님, 우리 할아버지께서는 연세가 많으십니다.

    have you tried rocketlanguages.com ? it should give you answers about the different levels of speech and also the honorifics.

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