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Can you tell me more about mixing personal pronouns in a sentence?

It is difficult for me to understand where to place peronsal pronouns in Tagalog sentences. Sometimes it appears that a necessary pronoun is omitted.

For example, my friend tells me the following mean 'I did not hear you':
Hindi ikaw narinig
Ikaw ay hindi narinig

I can understand this easily if it only means 'You are not heard' or 'not heard, you'. But if there is an implied or understood meaning here, that tells you 'it was I who did not hear you', could you explain it to me?

Which is correct? Can you give me some other examples of sentences with mixed personal pronouns, and more importantly, can you tell me how I should know which was the doer of an action, and who was the receiver

I brought this for you
This is my present for you
You are not listening to me
How can I help you?
John can not help you
are you hear to see her?

and so on

For learning: Filipino (Tagalog)
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Best Answer - Chosen by the Asker
    In Tagalog, sentence construction is based on focuses with ang, ng and sa. In your example, your "ang" or actor in the sentence was "ka/ikaw". If you say "hindi ka narinig" or "ikaw ay hindi narinig" then the focus is on you, the person who was not heard. However, you could change the focus as you described and say "hindi ako nakarinig sa iyo" or "ako ay hindi nakarinig sa iyo", which focuses on I, the person who did not hear the person referred to with "sa iyo". You could also say "Hindi kita narinig" which is a more direct way of saying "I didn't hear you" which leaves in both personal pronouns (ko + ka are combined as "kita", like when you'd say something like "mahal kita").

    Let's look at some of the example sentences:

    "I brought this for you."

    As mentioned above, there are several ways of saying this. You could focus on yourself as the bringer of the object ("Ako ang nagdala nito para sa iyo"), the object you brought ("Ito ang idinala ko para sa iyo") or the person you've brought the object to ("Dinalan kita nito"). I know it sounds confusing but once you find yourself in a situation where you know what you want to focus on in a given sentence, it'll start to make more sense. It's the same way that we would emphasize the most important word in an English sentence by speaking it louder or enunciating it, only in Tagalog this is done with grammatical focus.

    "How can I help you?"

    Again, you have several ways of saying this, whether you want to focus on yourself as the helper ("Paano ako makaktulong sa iyo?") or the other person as the receiver of help ("Paano kita matulungan?"). Since there's no external object here like in the previous example, you can only focus on either yourself or the other person.

    Hope this helps!

     

    A simple sentence in Filipino has a subject and a predicate. The sentence structure is the opposite of the English language where the predicate comes first before the subject. The subject can be a noun, a pronoun, an adjective, a verb or a prepositional phrase. The predicate can be a verb, an adjective, a noun or a prepositional phrase.

    Example:

    Si Lloyd ka
    DIrect translation; You Lloyd is
    Correct translation: You are Lloy

    I brought this for you - Dala ko ito para sa iyo.
    This is my present for you - Eto ang pasalubong ko sa iyo.
    You are not listening to me - Hindi ka nakikinig
    How can I help you? - Paano ako makakatulong?
    John can not help you - HIndi makakatulong si John.
    are you here to see her? - Narito ka ba para sa kanya? (kanya - used for both genders)

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