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For learning: Japanese
Base language: Japanese
Category: Language


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    This is very hard to explain because I am not a teacher. Also, they are probably one of the most difficult part of Japanese grammars.


    "は" is a topic marker.
    ・ topic marker
    ・ Contrast etc...
    Example :

    The topic can be anything that you want to talk about.

    Beside being a topic marker, "は" is used to show contrast or to emphasize the subject.

    "が" is a subject marker.
    ・Subject marker
    ・With question words
    ・Emphasize etc...

    が with Question Words

    When a question word such as "who" and "what" is the subject of a sentence, it is always followed by "が" never by "は".

    「私が行きます 」
    To answer the question, it also has to be followed by "が"

    Also, some verbs and adjectives (expressing like, know, want etc.) take "が" .


    In your example sentences above,
    瑠璃子ちゃん is the subject of this sentence, not the topic and you could say "瑠璃子ちゃんが日本にかえっていらい" instead of "瑠璃子ちゃんは日本にかえっていらい"。

    This English site may be of use to you for は/が.

    Please do not worry if you do not fully understand it. I know that they are very difficult to understand amongst non-native Japanese speakers! If you keep practicing, you will get used to it! I am also happy to answer any other questions you may have about this.

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