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Can anyone help me with prepositions in Italian?

I don't know when to use "a"; "di"; "in" , "per". and in which situations?
Thank you :)

For learning: Italian
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Italian prepositions are a complicated matter, anyway, a fast and easy introduction is to compare with English
    a = to
    vado a Roma -> I go to Rome
    lo dico a Marco -> I say that to Marco

    di = of, about
    il libro di Marco -> the book of Marco
    il libro racconta di una storia d'amore -> this book tells about a love story

    in = in
    il gatto è in casa = the cat is in the house

    per = for, through
    un regalo per Marco -> a present for Marco
    cammino per il bosco -> I walk through the forest

    Beware this is just a short and easy introduction

     

    Lui ,andiamo A casa,alfredo e' DI perugia,guarda IN alto,vado PER i campi CIAO STUDIA E'

     

    Not an easy subject ...
    Let me suggest you to divide it in three big sections:
    s1: a,in (+al, allo, alla, ... nel,nelle, negli,...)
    s2: di
    s3: per
    Maybe the subject should be divided regarding the ACTION performed (the verb, the dominant meaning in the sentence) more than by the preposition, I try to follow this approach, which could help (in my view) to make categories
    and learn.
    Otherwise a detailed explanation should require too much space (and effort!)
    for a single question.

    Here are some examples:
    1a) Vado {a Parigi, a Roma, a Londra, AD Hanoi, a Pechino, AD Amburgo, ...}
    1b) Vado in {Francia, Italia, Inghilterra, Vietnam, Germania}

    2a) Sono {a Parigi, a Roma, a Londra, AD Hanoi, a Pechino, AD Amburgo, ...}
    2b) Sono in {Francia, Italia, Inghilterra, Vietnam, Germania}

    Vado nelle Filippine.
    Sono nelle Filippine.
    Perche` ?
    Si diceva un tempo :
    Vado nelle isole Filippine.
    Sono nelle isole Filippine.

    4) Telefono {a Gianni, a casa, a Marco, IN ufficio, al mio amico ABC, ai miei amici, ...}

    5a) Corro da Antonio. (towards him, maybe happily)
    5b) Corro via da Giovanni. (away from him, maybe scared)

    6a) Vado IN treno (by train).
    6b) Vado al treno (towards the train).

     

    Exception:
    you could say (for Vietnam) in two ways:
    a) vado {in, nel} Vietnam.
    b) sono {in, nel} Vietnam.
    Why ?
    I believe that originally we used to say:
    nello stato del Vietnam, and now, dropping /stato del/ we still use /nel/
    as the (mostly used) proposition.
    The same applies to /Congo/, /Honduras/, /Guatemala/
    nel Congo
    nell'Honduras
    nel Guatemala

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