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Need help with Tagalog sentence structure using "ang"

 

I'm confused with word order in Tagalog.

This book is expensive.
Mahal ang itong libro.

This is an expensive book.
Mahal na libro ito.

Does "ang" correspond to "is"? And if so, why is it omitted in the second sentence?
How do I decide which words to connect with "ng" or "na"?

I love Tagalog. I feel like I'm singing every time I say a word. It's a beautiful language!

But it's *much* more difficult for me than Spanish, that's for sure!!!

Thanks in advance for any help!

For learning: Filipino (Tagalog)
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    The first sentence is incorrect. It should be:
    Mahal ang librong ito. / Ang libro na ito ay mahal.
    This book is expensive.

    Mahal na libro ito. / Ito ay (isang) mahal na libro.
    This is an expensive book.

    Simply put, "ang" is equivalent to the English article "the". In the first sentence's case, it becomes "this" because of "ito", specifying which book you are talking about. A literal translation would be, "The book that is this is expensive." :))

    Additionally, you may hear a lot of people say, "ADJECTIVE itong NOUN na ito." It's redundant, of course, but it's common usage. Perhaps it's for emphasis.


    >> How do I decide which words to connect with "ng" or "na"?

    If the preceding word ends with a vowel, you append "~ng" to the end of the sentence.
    If the preceding word ends with a consonant, you use "na."
    This applies to both adjectives and nouns, but they may have different nuances.

    Magandang babae / Babaeng maganda
    Beautiful woman

    Ligaw na bata / Batang ligaw
    Lost child

    Itim na sapatos / Sapatos na itim
    Black shoes

    Counters are an exception. For example, you cannot interchange "apat na mansanas" (four apples) with "mansanas na apat."

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