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Need help with Tagalog sentence structure using "ang"

 

I'm confused with word order in Tagalog.

This book is expensive.
Mahal ang itong libro.

This is an expensive book.
Mahal na libro ito.

Does "ang" correspond to "is"? And if so, why is it omitted in the second sentence?
How do I decide which words to connect with "ng" or "na"?

I love Tagalog. I feel like I'm singing every time I say a word. It's a beautiful language!

But it's *much* more difficult for me than Spanish, that's for sure!!!

Thanks in advance for any help!

For learning: Filipino (Tagalog)
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    There are various way to say it:
    Ang librong ito ay mahal. ~ sentence structure (Ang = The) which is a definite article + Noun (libro = book) + pronoun (ito) + (ay) often translated into English as 'is' or 'are' or 'am.' + adjective (mahal).
    Mahal ang librong ito. ~ (Adjective mahal) + (definite aritcle "ang") + Noun (libro) + pronoun (ito).
    Mahal na librong ito. ~ (Adjective mahal) + (na) is a linker to the object + (object "libro") + (pronoun "ito).

    "Ang" is usually used at the start of the sentence, and is translated in English as "the" which is a definite article. So sometimes, it is ommited since the message of the sentence clearly states it, and that is the "book"

    How do I decide which words to connect with "ng" or "na"?

    Usually, "NA" is used after the adjective that ends in consonant:
    mahal "na" libro ~expensive book
    makapal "na" libro ~thick book
    manipis "na" libro ~thin book

    and "NG" is used after the adjective that ends in vowels (you connect it to the adjective):
    maganda+ng = magandang libro ~pretty book, beautiful book, good book
    luma+ng = lumang libro = old book
    bago+ng = bagong libro + new book
    puti+ng = puting libro = white book
    libre+ng = libreng libro = free book

    technically, you can use "NA" to adjectives that end in vowels, but it will sound awkward, and make the sentence rather long, so you have another reason to use "NG" instead, :)

    SO, that's it, i hope this will help you.

    The first sentence is incorrect. It should be:
    Mahal ang librong ito. / Ang libro na ito ay mahal.
    This book is expensive.

    Mahal na libro ito. / Ito ay (isang) mahal na libro.
    This is an expensive book.

    Simply put, "ang" is equivalent to the English article "the". In the first sentence's case, it becomes "this" because of "ito", specifying which book you are talking about. A literal translation would be, "The book that is this is expensive." :))

    Additionally, you may hear a lot of people say, "ADJECTIVE itong NOUN na ito." It's redundant, of course, but it's common usage. Perhaps it's for emphasis.


    >> How do I decide which words to connect with "ng" or "na"?

    If the preceding word ends with a vowel, you append "~ng" to the end of the sentence.
    If the preceding word ends with a consonant, you use "na."
    This applies to both adjectives and nouns, but they may have different nuances.

    Magandang babae / Babaeng maganda
    Beautiful woman

    Ligaw na bata / Batang ligaw
    Lost child

    Itim na sapatos / Sapatos na itim
    Black shoes

    Counters are an exception. For example, you cannot interchange "apat na mansanas" (four apples) with "mansanas na apat."

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