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Lithuanian dalyviai

Labas! I know the existence of lithuanian dalyviai, have some tables with many of them, but no one explained them to me yet. I guess I need at least to know how to use or translate some of them in order to write proper texts in lithuanian :)

I've seen dirbęs / dirbusi used almost as adjectives, and in my spanish language, we would call them participles (because we have only one kind of them!). So, it would be translated as "worked" (or in spanish "cansado / cansada"), but don't know much more, what's the correct form to use them in a phrase or similar (I'd love some examples, please).

Also, I've seen dirbantis / dirbanti, only have heard it would be a gerund and would mean "working" (in spanish "trabajando"), but don't know anything else :(

About the rest ( Dirbdavęs / Dirbsiantis / Dirbamas / Dirbtas) I have not the tiniest clue how could I even translate them...

Labai ačiū! :)

For learning: Lithuanian
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Participles (dalyviai) are used to describe a person or a thing in a way which is related to their actions or actions which are applied upon them. So it is used as an adjective as you pointed out in your message.
    Every tense has its own dalyvis form and there are two types of dalyvis as well: active and passive.
    Leaving all the grammatical terms aside, let's look at some examples.

    Vyras, dirbantis šiame ofise, mėgsta krepšinį. (Vyras, kuris dirba šiame ofise, mėgsta krepšinį.)
    A man, who is working at this office, likes basketball.

    Vyras, dirbęs šiame ofise, mėgo krepšinį. (Vyras, kuris dirbo šiame ofise, mėgo krepšinį.)
    A man, who was working at this office, liked basketball.

    Vyras, dirbdavęs šiame ofise, mėgo krepšinį. (Vyras, kuris dirbdavo šiame ofise, mėgo krepšinį.)
    A man, who used to work in this office, liked basketball.

    Vyras, dirbsiantis šiame ofise, mėgsta krepšinį. (Vyras, kuris dirbs šiame ofise, mėgsta krepšinį.)
    A man, who will be working in this office, likes basketball.

    As you see, the man is/was/will be working at the office himself, so in this case we use active dalyvis. The sentences in the brackets mean exactly the same and you don't need to use dalyvis. The form of future dalyvis "dirbsintis" is very rarely used even by Lithuanians, so it will be logical not to learn it at all.

    Grojama daina yra labai graži.
    The song, which is (being) played, is very nice.

    Nupiešta moteris atrodė labai jaunai.
    The drawn women (The women who was drawn) looked very young.

    In this case the song was played and the women was drawn, so the actions were applied to then. In this case we use passive dalyvis.

    It might seem complicated, because it is and I can imagine that it can be pain in the backside to learn this kind of stuff, but I encourage you not to pay too much attention to this. You will get the feeling of it as you advance.

     

    You pretty much summed it up saying that active dalyvis can be thought of as a -ing form of the verb (walking man, falling snow, playing kid) and passive dalyvis is similar to -ed or 3rd form of the verb which describes some property of a thing which was influenced by some action (cooked meal, repaired computer, broken car).

    Feel free to ask questions, since I am sure that you have plenty of them. I will try to find some examples of frequently used dalyvis as well.

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