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What's the difference between "es" and "esta"? And when can I use each of them?

I've been told that they're used differently, but I don't understand how to different they're. Thanks in advance.

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I've been told that they're used differently, but I don't understand how different they're. Thanks in advance.

For learning: Spanish
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    It is confusing for beginning Spanish students specially who speaks English as first language learn the differences between SER and ESTAR. Both mean TO BE.
    SER tells you what something is, the nature of its beeing: Soy una persona ( I'm a human being) Esto es un caballo ( This is a horse) Yo soy maestra(I'm a teacher) Es un edificio azul ( It's a blue building)
    ESTAR refers to a temporary state that can change it doesnt refers to an inner quality but temporary like
    La casa esta sucia. ( The house is dirty) Never you would say La casa ES sucia why? because you can clean the house then the house will change state dirty to clean. Express a temporary state as john esta cansado (John is tired)- John wont be tired forever
    La casa ES grande ( the house is big -ser- express continuity the house wont change size :)
    Tu eres intelligente (you are smart -you were born with that quality)
    Ese libro es un clasico ( that book is a classic- nobody will change how the book is clasified)
    Tu eres hermosa (You are beautiful (it doesnt matter what you do: you are beautiful)
    instead Estar express a quality for a period of time not inner or forever
    El cafe esta frio (The coffee is cold. Ok you can heat it so it will be hot you see the coffe can chage from hot to cold so you use the verb ESTAR.
    El clima esta humedo esta semana ( this week the weather is humid- It wont be humid forever) it can be a change in the weather for next week.
    Other tricky examples here:

    •Estoy cansado, I am tired. /Soy cansado, I am a tired person.
    •Estoy feliz, I'm happy now. /Soy feliz, I am happy by nature.
    •Está callada, she's being quiet./ Es callada, she's introverted.
    •No soy listo, I'm not a quick thinker./ Estoy listo, I'm ready.
    •Estoy cansado, I am tired./ Soy cansado, I am a tired person.
    •Estoy feliz, I'm happy now./ Soy feliz, I am happy by nature.
    •Está callada, she's being quiet. /Es callada, she's introverted.
    •No soy listo, I'm not a quick thinker./ Estoy listo, I'm ready.
    Hope it will be useful for you.

    Hola:

    Aunque la diferencia más clara está en que el verbo "ser" expresa continuidad y duración (el coche es rojo - lo es ahora y en general siempre), y el verbo "estar" expresa una situación momentánea y no permanente (el coche está sucio - lo está ahora y no es permanente); hay otros matices que puedes ver en este vínculo: http://www.juntadeandalucia.es/averroes/vertie/ensen/lengua.htm

    Espero que te sirva de ayuda.

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