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The differences between [ أ إ ا ] and [ ءُ ءِ ءَ ] in Arabic

Writing Arabic in computer is always a challenge due to the opposition of word-flow orientation (left-to-right in Latin vs. right-to-left in Arabic). A lot of time, I just cannot handle how to properly copy-and-paste in Arabic :(

Through a basic Arabic course, I learnt (if I were correct) that [ أ إ ا ] and [ ءُ ءِ ءَ ] are considered as short vowel sounds of "a", "i", "u" respectively.

Nevertheless, I would like to know, how to distinguish them through solely pronunciation? Is it correct to say that [ أ إ ا ] appears at the beginning of a word, while [ ءُ ءِ ءَ ] may appear other places except the beginning of a word? Positive comments are fully appreciated.

Thank you very much for your kind attention and any answers, and good day to all.

For learning: Arabic
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    Best Answer - Chosen by the Asker
    The hamza can be written alone or with a carrier, in which case it becomes a diacritic:

    Alone: ء (always isolated)
    Combined with a letter:
    أ and إ (above and under an ʾalif) (joined finally only ـأ ـإ)
    ؤ (above a wāw) (joined finally only ـؤ)
    ئ (above a dotless yāʾ, also called yāʼ hamza) (joined initially, medially and finally ئـ ـئـ ـئ, though not initially in words, but other languages written in Arabic-based script may have it initially in words)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hamza

    أ = sounds exactly as あ in Japanese
    it comes at the beginning of the word , in the meddle , and at the end
    examples:
    أراد = あ+rad - (he)want
    اسأل = as al - to ask
    مرفأ = marfa

    إ = sounds E as in English and い as in Japanese
    إرسال = ersal - to send
    إتفاق = etifaq - agreement
    بإحضار= be ehdar
    ( at the beginning and in the meddle of the words only )

    ء = it called hamza
    you can use it in the meddle of the word and at the end

    examples:
    At the end of the word, hamza can be written in conjunction with any of the short vowels, e.g. with a short /a/ (أ), with a short /o/ (ؤ), or with a short /i/ (ئ), e.g. ‘refuge; (ملجأ), ‘refugee’ (لاجئ), ‘slowing down’ (تباطؤ)
    At the end of the word, hamza can also occur not in conjunction with any vowel, and in this case it is written on the line (ء), e.g. ‘burden’ (عبء) and ‘friends’(أصدقاء)

    in the meddle of the words :
    as in ‘responsibility’ can be written as (مسئولية) or (مسؤولية), and ‘affairs’ can be written as either (شئون) or (شؤون). Both forms are acceptable, and it is often the case that one of the forms is common in a certain country, e.g. the first of both examples are more common in Egypt, and the later of both are more common in the Gulf and the Levant regions.


    There are some links explainimmg the use of ء :

    http://www.arabion.net/lesson5.html
    http://www.learnarabiconline.com/writing-hamza.shtml
    http://www.transparent.com/arabic/alif-and-hamza/

    Good luck ^_^

    Hamza is 29th litter in Arabic alphabet and it comes all ways with the vowel litters (ا و ي) alif ,ba', ya' ,in the beginning ,middle and end of words (أ إ ؤ ئ ) & it will be alone in the end of the word (ء). It located under the alif ( إ ) in (al-kasser) situation . Hamza (ءُ ء ِ ءَ ) with the three short vowels as you said (a i u) . and with the long vowels (ءًٌ ء ِ ِ ءً ) ( ann inn unn ) but this more in formal language .
    These long vowels ( ً ٍ ٌ )(ann inn unn) comes with nouns and adj.s only in the formal language at the end of the words only .
    ( ٌ ) they call it tenween aldhamm .
    ( ٍ ) they call it tenween al-kasser .
    ( ً ) they call it tenween al-fatteH (H here is ح ) .

    with the vowel litters
    أنَّ = anna = That
    إنسان = inssan = Human
    أ ُم = Umm = mother
    ألإنسان = Al-inssan = The human
    منشأة = munsha'a = Facility
    شئ = shay' = thing
    لؤي = lu-ay = male name

    alone at the end of word
    ماء = maa' = water

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