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How does Chinese language work? What is the structure compared to English?

For learning: Chinese (Mandarin)
Base language: English
Category: Language

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    1.Chinese sentences can be divided into two categories:the simple sentence and the complexsentence.

    2.In terms of the basic structure of the simple sentence, there are some difference between Chinese and Englis:
    1)the position of the adverbial adjunct
    In Chinese it should be noted that adverbial adjunct must precede(not follow) the head words which they modify or restrict.whereas in English it can be put after the head words.
    ex.我"今天下午"上中文课。(I have Chinese lesson "this afternoon".)
    ex.我"很"喜欢它。(I like it "very much".)
    and all that.

    2)In Chinese the attributive always precedes the head word.In English it is not always.
    ex.我喜欢"他送的"礼物(I like the present "which he send".)
    ex.他告诉我一个"关于你的"好消息(He told me a good news "about you".)
    and all that

    3)In English only verbs can be used as the predicate of a sentence .But in Chinese adjective and nouns also can be used as the predicate of a sentence.
    ex.他很帅。(He is very handsome.)
    ex.今天星期一。(It is Monday today.)

    Anyway,there are many difference Chinese sentence structure compared to English.I have just enumerated several which foreigners often confuse.
    If you want to know more,would you mind giving me a little detail?

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