This is difficult to answer given the excerpt and its limited context, but I'll try to help.
It sounds as though someone has confessed that the narrator is involved in something important and that the "Pre-State Bureaucracy" has taken note of the narrator's name for use later, possibly to interrogate or torture her. "Pre-State Bureaucracy" is probably referring to the organization's size, impersonal nature, and anonymity (I'm sorry if I used difficult words to describe a difficult word).
"Chasing debentures in Istanbul" is also going to be difficult to explain. Debentures are bonds (loans between an investor and a business) that are made based on the business's credit. Related to your story, I think this means that the "counselor" who is an expert in "confession" is actually being referred to in a "tongue-in-cheek" way. This means that when they say he is a "counselor" who draws "confessions" from people, they actually mean that he is a creditor who hunts down people that have taken loans and then takes the money they owe back by force. Again, sorry if this is more complicated than you would like, but this sounds like a very complex book. I could be wrong in all of this, but I hope I helped somehow. Good luck.