The difference is really subtle (I’m a native speaker and I’m having trouble working out if there’s always a difference!).
“Made of” usually means a material that something is made from. E.g. “this cupboard is made of oak.”
Or “this jumper is made of wool.”
“Made with” usually implies there are other materials or ingredients involved. E.g. “this jam has been made with strawberries.” (Because there are other ingredients in the jam).
Sometimes it’s also used for emphasis on quality or the process - e.g. “this cupboard has been made with the finest oak from xxx”
“Made from” - what something is made from. So it’s very similar to “made of” - I think of it as being more where something originated.
I would not say “this jumper is made from wool”.
I would say “this jumper is made of wool.”
But I would say “this wool is made from sheep.” (Not made of sheep).
I’m sure others will have better examples but honestly if you get them mixed up it’s not a barrier to anyone understanding you, the meanings are really not that different.