Despite being Spanish, never heard most of these proverbs, and this kind of phrases often mean something different from what the literal reading says, so my translation may not reflect their actual meaning.
2 A big head and a great head, are two very different things.
3 From Christmas to Saint John, six months pass by.
4 From every ten men you help, five will be happy and four ungrateful. (No idea what happens to the tenth)
5 Madrid, nine months of winter and three months of hell.
6 Overcast sky, in twenty-four hours will be wet.
7 Thirty days has November, as April, June and September, only one has twenty-eight; and the remaining, thirty-one.
8 From one evil seven are born, if not twenty.
9 Better being the first in your village than the second in Rome.