In UK-English, yes we have the same thing - people who prefer to rise early can be said to be "up with the lark", people who prefer to party into the night are referred to as "night owls"
As an aside...we also have people who prefer to rise late that can be said to be "lazy buggers", but i wouldn't count that as particularly important - amusing, possibly, but not important
I'm an "owl".. I prefer to be active in the night time
In American English, we often refer to people as night owls or early birds (or early risers). All these expressions are reasonably positive in connotation, although we do say "the early bird gets the worm," and "early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise."
Note that the idiomatic expression “on a lark” has an entirely unrelated meaning: