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discussion of conditional types in persian

Grammar Objective: Conditional sentences
Level: Beginners and intermediate
Style: Standard Iranian Persian (Tehraani)
Sources: See below

Real type:
RT I
- if-clause in past tense, then-clause in present indicative tense or future tense.
Used when the statement is about to happen in the very near future.
* If he goes to Isfahan, he telephones our house
اگر او به اصفهان رفت ٬ به خانه ما تلفن می کند
* If he goes to Isfahan, he will telephone our house
اگر او به اصفهان رفت ٬ به خانه ما تلفن خواهد کرد

RT II
- If-clause in present indicative, then-clause in present indicative or future.
Used when the statement is likely.
Examples:
* If he goes to Isfahan, he telephones our house
اگر او به اصفهان می رود ٬ به خانه ما تلفن می کند
* If he goes to Isfahan, he will telephone our house
اگر او به اصفهان می رود ٬ به خانه ما تلفن خواهد کرد

RT III
- if-clause in present subjunctive, then-clause in present indicative or future.
Used when the if-statement is doubtful .
Examples:
* If he'd go to Isfahan, he telephones our house
اگر او به اصفهان برود ٬ به خانه ما تلفن می کند

RT IV
- if-clause in present indicative, then-clause in bayaad + present subjunctive (obligation form).
Used when the statement is an obligation.
Example:
* If he goes to Isfahan, he should telephone our house
اگر او به اصفهان می رود ٬ باید به خانه ما تلفن بکند

RT V
- if clause in present indicative, then clause in imperative.
Used when the statement is an advice or an invitation or an order.
Example:
* If you go to Isfahan, telephone our house !
اگر تو به اصفهان می روی ٬ به خانه ما تلفن کن

Unreal type , the possibility of the proposition being realized is remote or even impossible:
UT I
- if-clause in past subjunctive tense , then clause in past tense.
Used when the statement is unlikely or impossible.
Example:
* if he would had gone to Isfahan , he telephoned our house
اگر او به اصفهان رفته باشد ٬ به خانه ما تلفن کرد

UT II
- if-clause in imperfect tense, then-clause in imperfect tense.
Used when the statement is impossible.
Example:
* if he went to Isfahan, he would telephone our house
گراو به اصفهان می رفت ٬ به خانه ما تلفن می کرد

Contrary fact , this conditional sentence is used when it is known that the condition has not been, and will not be, fulfilled :
CF I
- if-clause in past perfect tense ( ماضی بعید ) , then-clause in past perfect tense.
Used when the statement is impossible and also implies regret and criticism?
Example:
* if he had gone to Isfahan, he would have telephoned our house
اگر او به اصفهان رفته بود ٬ به خانه ما تلفن کرده بود

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reference for RT V:
Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari University of Tehran: Sequence of Tenses in Persian , at
http://www.academia.edu/42798…/Sequence_of_Tenses_in_Persian (located 29.08.2016)

reference for UT I:
Behrooz Mahmoodi-Bakhtiari University of Tehran: Sequence of Tenses in Persian , at
http://www.academia.edu/42798…/Sequence_of_Tenses_in_Persian (located 29.08.2016)

Reference for all types:
Bashiri , I. (1991): Persian for Beginners (chapter 13 , pp. 222 - 224 ). Sorayya Publishers.

This is my understanding of Bashiri's presentation of conditionals in his book. Are some of these forms less used than others?  Are the usages like I write ? I'd like to discuss it.



Aug 29, 2016 8:06 PM
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