Alan
-- 如何翻译诗?-- <p>我今天想到一个有意思的注意:把我最喜欢的英语诗译成中文。但我一开始发现了最难的方面跟词汇语法什么的并没有关系。其实,最难的就是:怎么把英文版的美貌转到中文?


翻译中文诗也不容易。看一下李白的《静夜思》:

床前明月光
疑是地上霜  
举头望明月  
低头思故乡


然后看一下两个不同的英文翻译:</p><p>1.</p><p>At the foot of the bed, bright moonlight
I imagine frost on the floor
Raising my head, I gaze at the bright moon
Lowering my head, I think of my old village
</p><p>
</p><p>2.
Moon light by the bedding shines
So bright like frost upon the loam.
The head lifts gazing at the moon,
And sinks back down with thoughts of home.
</p><p>你们觉得哪个翻译是最美?第一个翻译是最正确的直译,但对英文母语者没有任何感动的印象。就是听起来像一个人随意聊天。第二个呢,译者很聪明地用英语发音的重音系统造一个漂亮的节奏。而且第二个翻译也符合英语诗的普通韵律。所以这是一个英语母语者能了解的美貌翻译(说实话,我真不会欣赏中国诗。如果我比较一首杜甫的诗和一首被初中学生写的诗,我真看不出来哪个最美,真是对牛弹琴。)</p><p>
</p>听到英文诗的原版觉得美丽吗,还是都看起来像随便写的语言?看外文诗的中文翻译呢,给你什么样感觉呢?你们认为能够把一首诗译成其它语言,还是那么大的变化一定会破坏原版的感觉?
Sep 29, 2016 12:08 PM
Comments · 10
<p style="text-indent: 28px;">(...)</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">严复的’信达雅‘理论和尤金·奈达的“功能对等” (dynamic and formal equivalence)有异曲同工之妙。</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">They use different approaches and emphasize different translation strategies, but i think the   effect they both want to  pursue are the same. </p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">尤其是文学翻译中,没有完美的翻译。there is always more to do...</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">
</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">p.s :  我还看到另外一种翻译:</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">      In the Quiet Night </p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">So bright a gleam on the foot of my bed- </p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">Could there have been a frost already?</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">Lifting up my head to look, I found that it was moonling/ </p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">Sinking back again, I thought suddenly of home.</p><p style="text-indent: 28px;">(Tr. by Witter Bynner)</p>
September 29, 2016
<p>这个讨论好!我对中英翻译很感兴趣~~~</p><p>
</p><p>首先,语言和语言之间的翻译是无法做到完全对等(equivalence)的。</p><p>其次呢,在文学翻译领域中,比如你说的诗歌啊、小说啊,中国人遵循的是翻译的三大原则——’信达雅‘。(严复的理论 )</p><p>信 (faithfulness):忠实原文, to be royal to the original text first.(you are not supposed to add, omit or change the meaning from original texts. )</p><p>达 (expressiveness):不拘泥于形式,要通顺、达意,  based on rule A faithfulness, you can change slightly change the format to convey meanings to target readers clearly and easily. For example, the second translation here has changed the original sentence form as you see, unlike the first translation, which is highly royal to the original text in terms of form and content. </p><p>雅(elegance): 用词要得体,追求优雅, this must be the highest pursuit of excellent translation, your translation is supposed to keep the same style with the original one as well as the flow of emotions. For example, when you read this English translation of 静夜思, as a non-native, you can feel the same emotion as the way native readers feel. The second version is better than the first one obviously in this case. </p><p style="text-indent: 28px; ">
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September 29, 2016
<p>在古书中,可能大家看到的《静夜思》是这个样子的:</p><div>床前明月光疑是地上霜举头望明月低头思故乡</div><div>
</div><div>没有标点,一个字接一个字的写下去。但它是诗。而现在许多所谓的诗,如果这样写的话,恐怕没几个人说它是诗。可见,诗是有它固定的形式与诗意的,少一不可。</div><div>而对于古诗词来说,那个”格律“之严、之美只有汉语能够实现,因为汉语是一字一音,一音一字,完美对应,阴阳平仄,对仗工整。你用什么方法把这些译成英语呢?完全没有办法,所以,非要译汉语的古诗词,还是只译诗意吧。</div><div>
</div><div>《静夜思》的美,就分成两部分,一是韵律的美,就和音乐一样,每个人都可以听歌,但会写歌、会唱歌(专业)、和懂音乐的人听同一首歌,和一个完全不懂音乐的人,他们所欣赏到的美是不一样的。所以,古诗词的格律、韵律美,并不是一个不懂得诗诗格律的人能理解和完全欣赏的了的。你可以去体会一下”推敲“这个词语故事。所以,这一部分内容要解释起来就很复杂,也就是你说的专业术语一大堆。</div><div>另一部分就是诗的意境与思想、情感。这一部分相对就容易理解一些。因为许多情感古今中外,只要是人大家都是相通的。
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September 30, 2016
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Alan
Language Skills
Chinese (Mandarin), English, French, Persian (Farsi)
Learning Language
Chinese (Mandarin), Persian (Farsi)