The Edward FitzGerald translation is considered a classic of English literature. It was widely taught in schools here for decades, and almost anyone over the age of 50 probably recognizes this famous passage:
A book of verses beneath the bough,
A jug of wine, a loaf of bread – and thou
Beside me singing in the wilderness –
Oh, wilderness were paradise enow!
I was required to memorize a chunk of it in high school. I remember dreading the assignment, but was surprised at how much I ended up enjoying it. It was my favorite poem in the entire one-year survey.
Arabian literature is irrelevant to the discussion.
I think some Afghans and Tajiks are certainly familiar with him. I also know that Khayyam is famous in Russia and the Russian translation of Khayyam's Rubaiyat is actually a good translation of his poems. I think a few days ago Putin recited two verses of one of Khayyam's quatrains. I'm not sure though.
Unfortunately, I do not know the original Persian quatrain that corresponds to what you wrote. Fitzgerald's translation is a free translation that captures only the general meaning of Khayyam's poems and does not reflect the actual meaning of the verses. But we should be thankful to Edward Fitzgerald because the fame of Khayyam's poetry in the western world is very much due to his translations of Khayyam's poems.
First of all, I have to say that I'm a big fan of Omar Khayyam. I can recite tens of Khayyam's quatrains by heart. He is doubtlessly my favorite Persian poet, mathematician, philosopher and astronomer and I can't be more proud of him as an Iranian. I think the main element of Khayyam's poetry is not wine. Even though he uses the word a lot but the essence of Khayyam's poetry is about nihilism and hedonism and that we do not know what might happen to us in future, so we should spend today as best as we could. Here's a quatrain from Khayyam:
Az dee ke gozasht heech azu: ya:d makon (when yesterday passed never remember it again)
Farda: ke naya:madast farya:d makon (do not cry before tomorrow arrives)
Bar na:madeo gozashteh bonya:d makon (do not base your life on what has not come yet or what has already passed)
Ha:li khosh ba:sho omr bar ba:d makon (live your moments with happiness and do not waste your life)