I know it is very rare in Japan to miss work but in America, sometimes people cannot go or just don't feel like going to work (more if its a part time job) and we use the expression "i called out of work today" how can you say this in japanese?
He called out of work today so we went to study at a cafe.
He wasn't in the mood to deal with customers today so he called out of work.
If it is not because of illness, we can generally say "saboru".
This word is quite interesting, it is not original Japanese and cannot be written in kanji. It may come from "sabotage", French.
But if we "saboru" work, it is not politically correct :-) and we can also say "hima wo morau" or "hima wo itadaku" which means ask for time due to a proper reason.