Morocco resembles a tree whose roots are planted deeply in the land of Africa and that breathes thanks to its ??? by the winds of Europe.
1. "nourished deeply" isn't necessarily incorrect, but for the translation planted fits better as no native speaker would say "nourished deeply."
2. No comma is needed because there is not a new subject after the conjunction "and"
3. which isn't needed because there is no new phrase
4. Breathes is the correct tense for single third person present tense
5. I'm not sure what word to place for foliage. I would need more context, but, either way, foliage is not the word or "by the winds of Europe" is not the right phrase.
6. "to the winds of Europe is incorrect" because to implies something is being done to the winds. However, it is clear the winds are affecting something so by is correct here.
Hope that helps!