I only have time to do the first paragraph unfortunately, so...
A considerable number of people assert that young people shouldn’t hold leading positions in our countries.
Excellent first sentence. It sounds very natural to an English reader.
Others, myself included, are, on the other hand, opponents of the aforementioned view, claiming that youth represent a better fit for leading governments.
Too many commas break up the flow of the sentence. Reading this is like riding a seatless bicycle down a very bumpy road. I would write "Others, myself included, have the opposing view and claim that youth represent a better fit for leading governments."
As far as I am concerned, the underlying advantages and disadvantages inherent to the brought forth prompt must be pondered upon prior to reaching a firm conclusion.
This is not a clear sentence. For one thing, I don't know what "the brought forth prompt" is. "Prompt" doesn't convey the correct meaning and even if it did it should be plural because two points of view have been expressed. Next, adding "underlying" doesn't actually mean anything in this context. Lastly, you began by "poisoning the well" as we say, by implying that only you are concerned. I would suggest writing "Prior to reaching a firm conclusion we must ponder the advantages and disadvantages inherent in both propositions".