We also have such forms in Russian but just a few
учитель (male teacher) - учительница (female teacher)
писатель (male writer) - писательница (female writer)
By the way, right now the Russian language is experiencing co-called "feminization". Many words, especially types of occupation, are forced to have their "female twin". Those new words sound weird and kinda sloppy but, who knows, maybe they will become a part of our language in a couple of years.
Miriam, thank you so much.
But I think there is necessity in terms of language structure in German.
Talking about Japanese, in my opinion, there was possibilily that there were all male doctors in Japan befor and gradually female doctors began to exist, so female doctors were rare, that's why they called them "女医". But now there are a lot of male doctors and female doctors in Japan, and as I mentioned earlier, "医者" includs a male and a female doctor, so I think "女医" is kind of old Japanese(maybe a lot of Japanese people don't think so though).
Yes, in German, we often add a suffix for the female form:
Arzt (male doctor) - Ärztin (female doctor)
Lehrer (male teacher) - Lehrerin (female teacher)
Steward, Flugbegleiter (steward) - Stewardess, Flugbegleiterin (stewardess)
Sometimes we use different words
Krankenpfleger (male nurse) - Krankenpflegerin, Krankenschwester (female nurse)
"Schwester" means "sister" but we don't have a male equivalent with "Bruder" (brother) like "Krankenbruder".