I'm from the U.S. and although people typically ask, "How are you?", "How's it going?" or similar, it is generally superficial and more of a greeting.
That being said, I don't typically say that to people unless I know them personally. Generally I just say, "Hello" and/or "good day/afternoon/evening/night". A polite greeting is common in our culture.
I also have a mental list of people I know that I don't ask how they are doing, because they will tell me! Let me explain...
These individuals, most of them I've known for many years, will immediately begin describing all the medical issues they are having, including every detail of their daily bodily functions. TOO MUCH INFO!! :)
Everyone has their own style!
Interesting topic! Thanks.