To answer your question:
If you put a preposition after each of these verbs, the meanings change as they become different verbs. They are called phrasal verbs and there are many different of them.
For examplet you put to wait or to wait up
To wait: when you say wait your asking people to stay there or be patient when saying wait up your asking someone to slow down
To wait up: it's used if you want to say that you will delay sleeping until someone arrives or something happens. For example "I'm going to wait up all night until my mother comes home = not go to sleep until they arrive home".
The other examples you gave also change the meaning when you add the preposition at the end.
I hope this helps:)