The major rule that governs the conjugation of the ㅂ irregular verbs goes as follows: The ㅂ transforms into a 우 syllable whenever you use the verb with a verb ending that starts with a vowel. That is all there is to properly conjugate these irregular verbs.
However, there is one slight deviation for two verbs, 돕다 (to help) and 곱다 (to be lovely, to be charming). The ㅂ of these verbs changes into 오 whenever the verb ending can start with the syllable 아, like -아/어서, -아/어야 하다, -아/어도, etc. This is an important deviation you need to remember. Luckily, this only happens with the verbs 돕다 and 곱다.
You can check some examples here: https://www.morninglands.com/korean-language-bank-article/%E3%85%82-irregular-verbs/
Now about regular verbs, just do the 아/어요 ending.