You could use the first one in reference to a specific time in the past, although it would be more common to say “that” time. We can, however, use “this” instead of “that” as a rhetorical device to make the narration more vivid. Usually, though, “this time” implies a strong connection with the present, so the second one, using the perfect perfect, would be standard English. In reality, the first one is a very common variant in colloquial American English — it’s not what I teach, but I use it all the time in conversation. So in America, they're pretty much the same.