送报纸 means "deliver newspapers"
送报纸的 means "the one who delivers newspapers"
In Chinese, it's grammatically wrong to say "那个女”， but it's ok to say "那个女的"(it could sound unpolite, so be careful with this usage)
Similarly you can say, 教书的（the one whose job is teaching in a school, teacher）, 打鱼的(the one whose job is fishing, fishman), 唱歌的(the one whose job is singing, singer), so I think you got it, right?
来了 means "come, has arrived". But in the English translation, apparently they didn't use the word come.