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Jove Cao
中文里对老师的称呼,The call of the teacher in Chinese!
Due to the limitation of the number of words in the comment area, the translation is as follows:

Two mouths ago, when I was start to take in English class online, I knew a multilingual scholar. I wanted to call him“师父”(master) because I respected and worshipped him from my heart.

In China, we usually call the person who imparts knowledge "老师"(teacher). A hundred years ago, it was generally called "先生(Sir)". In modern times, if you are called "先生(Sir)", then you are more knowledgeable or worthy of students' respect in the eyes of students than ordinary teachers.

For example, a teacher's name is “王力(Wang Li)”. In Chinese, "王Wang" is his surname, and "力Li" is the given name .

In that case they are familiar between teacher and student, student will usually call the teacher "王老师(Teacher Wang)" .
If the teacherare in a university, it is usually called "王教授(Professor Wang)".the word “教授 " means Professor, a more respectful term, but it usually seems that teacher is not very close to students.

In universities, postgraduates will also call their teacher "王导(director Wang)" ,the word "导“ here means to guide and tutor, indicating that this teacher is the main tutor of a graduate student and the person guiding his graduation thesis. 
"王导" also contains other several meanings, one is to imply that the scholar has not yet got the title of Professor, the other is the head teacher of undergraduate students, and the other is that the relation relatively closer with students than the professor .


In contemporary China,sometimes teachers are also called "师父(Shifu)", but the word "师父(Shifu)" which usually has many meanings.
One refers to the person who imparts skills rather than theoretical knowledge. For example, the teacher in cook dish are usually called "师父(master)", and the apprentice calls their repair teacher "师父(master)".
In one case, there are elderly strangers in the street (cities in some regions of China are not allowed to use, which is suspected of discrimination).
This one meaning is important,that the teacher and the students are close, and the students think that the teacher is kind and amiable from their hearts. The word "师父(master)" is two words in Chinese. The word "师" refers to the person who imparts knowledge. The word "父" refers to the father. There is an old saying in China that "一日为师终身为父(one day is a teacher and the whole life is a father)". It means that once someone imparts knowledge to you one day , he will be similar your father all your life, and you will must be treat him like your father.

Sometimes, for the old and high prestige teachers, they will call "王老(Wang Lao)" and "老" means the old, or have rich knowledge or skills in a certain field.The most respectful name is “王老先生”. He is not only old, but also knowledgeable and highly respected.

Some mischievous students may be called “老王(Lao Wang)", which is only limited to strong close people, and there are no people who are not close around, otherwise shouting out in person seems very disrespectful.

Finally, the word "教师(teacher)" is usually used only in written language. In spoken language, it only refers to the other teacher in the talk. It is not used when two people are facing each other.

I'm sorry, on my English level limited.
If someone are interested in it and have free time, please can you help me to correct my English.
Or we can talk about sth in chinese to practice your chinese!

中文原文:
前两天我在上英语课的时候,认识一位多语言学者,我当时就想叫他师父,因为我发自内心的尊重和崇拜他。
在中国,通常我们把传授知识的人叫做“老师”,在百年以前,一般叫做“先生”,在现代,如果您被称作“先生”,那您在学生心目中比一般老师更加有学问或更值得学生的尊敬。
举例,一个老师,名字叫做“王力”,中文里,“王”是他的姓氏,“力”是家人给他起的名字。

如果比较熟悉的学生,通常会叫他“王老师”,“王”是这个老师的姓氏。
如果在大学里,通常会叫做“王教授”,“教授”指教授,比较尊重的一种称呼,但通常显得和学生关系不是特别亲密。
在大学里,研究生还会称呼他们老师“王导”,“导”在这里指导向、辅导的意思,表示这个老师是某个研究生的主要辅导教师,指导他毕业论文的人。“王导”还包含几个意思,一个是暗含这位学者还没有教授职称,一个是本科生的班主任,一个是相对于教授与学生比较亲近。

在中国当代,对老师还有一种称呼,叫做“师父”,这通常有多种意思,
一种指是传授技能而非理论知识的人,如厨师的学生通常叫厨师“师父”,徒弟管修车老师叫做“师父”。
一种意思,街头碰到年长的陌生人(中国某些地域内城市不能用,有歧视嫌疑)。
一种意思,是这个老师和学生比较亲密,而且学生从心底里认为这个老师和蔼可亲,才会叫做“师父”,“师父”字在中文里是两个字,“师”指的传授知识的人,“父”指父亲,中国有句古话叫做“一日为师终身为父”,意思是说,一旦有人有一天给你传授知识,他一辈子就像是您的父亲,药箱对待父亲一样对待他。

有时候,还对于年长且威望高的老师,还会喊“王老”,“老”表示老人,或在某方面的学识或者技能经验丰富。更加尊重的叫法“王老先生”,不仅年纪大、而且学识渊博、非常受人尊敬。
有些调皮的学生,可能会叫“老王”,仅限于非常非常亲密,而且周围人没有不亲密的人,否则当面喊出显得很不尊重。

最后,“教师“这个词通常只用于书面语,口语中仅对第三方的称呼,两个人面对面时不用。

很抱歉,我的英文水平有限。
如果您对此感兴趣,并且你有时间,或许可以帮我修改一下英文。
或许我们可以用中文交流。
29 maj 2020 11:13
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Jove Cao
Language Skills
Chinese (Mandarin), Chinese (Other), English, French, German
Learning Language
English, French, German