Alex
Lesson 18 - Accusative and Instrumental Cases

<em>Russian Accusative Case</em>

 

The accusative designates the object of an action. (I speak Russian, He speaks it too). The blue font shows the position of the accusative case.Sometimes the accusative case looks exactly like the nominative case, but not always. To form the accusative from nominative you need to be familiar with the changes occurring to the nominative:

 

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Russian Accusative Case

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; height: 16.0pt;"> <td style="width: 247.9pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 16.0pt;" valign="top" width="248">

For a masculine noun:

</td> <td style="width: 211.85pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 16.0pt;" valign="top" width="212">

For a feminine noun:

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; height: 22.0pt;"> <td style="width: 247.9pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 22.0pt;" valign="top" width="248">

When the noun in inanimate, no change is necessary.

</td> <td style="width: 211.85pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 22.0pt;" valign="top" width="212">

Replace “а” with “у”.

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 3; height: 35.05pt;"> <td style="width: 247.9pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 35.05pt;" valign="top" width="248">

When the noun is animate and ends with a consonant, add “а”.

</td> <td style="width: 211.85pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 35.05pt;" valign="top" width="212">

Replace “я” with “ю”.

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 4; height: 17.05pt;"> <td style="width: 247.9pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 17.05pt;" valign="top" width="248">

When the noun is animate, replace “ь”, add “я”.

</td> <td style="width: 211.85pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 17.05pt;" valign="top" width="212">

When ends with “ь” – no change is necessary.

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 5; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes; height: 17.95pt;"> <td style="width: 247.9pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 17.95pt;" valign="top" width="248">

When the noun is animate, replace “й”, with “я”.

</td> <td style="width: 211.85pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 17.95pt;" valign="top" width="212">

 

</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

 

For a neuter noun: since all neuter nouns are inanimate no change will occur, they stay the same.

<em>
</em>

<em>Russian Instrumental Case</em>

 

In general the Russian instrumental case is used to indicate how something is done or the means by which an action is carried out, usually in English it’s expressed by the prepositions "by, with".

 

<table class="MsoNormalTable" style="margin-left: 4.65pt; border-collapse: collapse; mso-table-layout-alt: fixed; border: none; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-yfti-tbllook: 1184; mso-padding-alt: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-border-insideh: .5pt solid windowtext; mso-border-insidev: .5pt solid windowtext;" width="464" border="1" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 0; mso-yfti-firstrow: yes; height: 42.0pt;"> <td style="width: 464.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 42.0pt;" colspan="3" width="464">

Russian Instrumental Case

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 1; height: 32.0pt;"> <td style="width: 203.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="203">

For a masculine noun:

</td> <td style="width: 2.5in; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="180">

For a feminine noun:

</td> <td style="width: 81.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="81">

For a neuter noun:

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 2; height: 64.0pt;"> <td style="width: 203.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 64.0pt;" width="203">

 for nouns ending with “ж”, “ш”, “щ”, “ц”, “ч” add “ем” if unstressed, if stressed add “ом”.

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for stems of nouns end with “ж”, “ш”, “щ”, “ц”, “ч” replace “а” with “ей”

</td> <td style="width: 81.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 64.0pt;" rowspan="4" width="81">

simply add “м”

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 3; height: 32.0pt;"> <td style="width: 203.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="203">

for other consonants, add “ом”.

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for the rest replace “а” with “ой”

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 4; height: 32.0pt;"> <td style="width: 203.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="203">

 replace “ь”, add “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

</td> <td style="width: 2.5in; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="180">

 replace “ь” with “ью”.

</td> </tr> <tr style="mso-yfti-irow: 5; mso-yfti-lastrow: yes; height: 32.0pt;"> <td style="width: 203.25pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="203">

replace “й”, with “ем”, if stressed “ём”.

</td> <td style="width: 2.5in; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; mso-border-top-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-left-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; mso-border-alt: solid windowtext .5pt; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; height: 32.0pt;" width="180">

replace “я” with “ей”, if stressed “ёй”.

</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

 

 

<table class="MsoNormalTable" style="border-collapse: collapse; mso-padding-alt: 0in 0in 0in 0in;" border="0" cellspacing="0" cellpadding="0"> <tbody> <tr> <td style="width: 476.6pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #F2F2F2; mso-background-themecolor: background1; mso-background-themeshade: 242; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" colspan="4" width="477">

Some Instrumental prepositions

</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 134.6pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; background: #C6D9F1; mso-background-themecolor: text2; mso-background-themetint: 51; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="135">

с (о) + Instrumental

</td> <td style="width: 1.5in; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #C6D9F1; mso-background-themecolor: text2; mso-background-themetint: 51; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="108">

with

</td> <td style="width: 135.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #DDD9C3; mso-background-themecolor: background2; mso-background-themeshade: 230; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="135">

над + Instrumental

</td> <td style="width: 99.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #DDD9C3; mso-background-themecolor: background2; mso-background-themeshade: 230; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="99">

above

</td> </tr> <tr> <td style="width: 134.6pt; border: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-top: none; background: #C6D9F1; mso-background-themecolor: text2; mso-background-themetint: 51; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="135">

между + Instrumental

</td> <td style="width: 1.5in; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #C6D9F1; mso-background-themecolor: text2; mso-background-themetint: 51; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="108">

between

</td> <td style="width: 135.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #DDD9C3; mso-background-themecolor: background2; mso-background-themeshade: 230; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="135">

перед + Instrumental

</td> <td style="width: 99.0pt; border-top: none; border-left: none; border-bottom: solid windowtext 1.0pt; border-right: solid windowtext 1.0pt; background: #DDD9C3; mso-background-themecolor: background2; mso-background-themeshade: 230; padding: 0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt;" width="99">

in front of

</td> </tr> </tbody> </table>

 

The Russian instrumental case is used after prepositions like c (with), между (between), над (above), перед (in front of), под (under).

May 14, 2012 11:09 PM
Alex
Language Skills
English, Russian, Ukrainian
Learning Language