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Experts say a shortage of fish and other food is (1)threatening many of the world's (2)penguins. They say as many as ten of the seventeen kinds of penguins may be in danger of disappearing.
For example, thousands of (3)Magellanic penguins build their (4)nests at Punta Tombo, (5)Argentina. (6)Wildlife Conservation Society researchers have studied these birds for eighteen years. They say the numbers of penguins have (7)decreased by thirty percent since Nineteen-Eighty-Seven.
Penguins are black and white birds that live in the southern half of the world. They are common to South America, (8)New Zealand, Australia and South Africa. Many live near cold waters. But some live near warm waters in the (9)Galapagos Islands, near the coast of (10)Ecuador. Penguins cannot fly. But they are fine swimmers. Penguins eat fish. Some kinds of penguins eat a small (11)shrimp-like (12)crustacean called (13)krill.
Many scientists blame (14)global warming for the decrease in penguin populations. They believe the heating of the atmosphere has caused ocean waters to become warmer. The scientists say higher water temperatures have reduced the supply of fish and krill.
Rising air and water temperatures may have especially harmed Galapagos penguins. Researchers say that some years these birds are completely unable to reproduce. In addition, many (15)adult penguins die of hunger.
(16)Widespread fishing, exploration for oil and oil (17)leaks also threaten penguins. Poisonous (18)organisms in ocean water are another danger. These (19)toxic blooms result from changes in the ocean water. Some scientists believe the warming of the oceans is responsible.
In Nineteen-Ninety, more than half the yellow-eyed penguins in New Zealand died suddenly. These (20)endangered birds may have died of a (21)mysterious disease. Penguins also have natural enemies, including wild dogs, sharks, seals and sea lions.
News about penguins is not all bad, however. About a year ago, oil leaking from a ship threatened forty percent of the penguins in South Africa. The penguins became covered with oil. But thousands of people helped clean and treat the birds. Then they returned the penguins to the wild. Now these South African penguins are reproducing in higher numbers than before the oil spill.
This VOA Special English ENVIRONMENT REPORT was written by Jerilyn Watson. This is Bill White.

专家说鱼和食物的短缺威胁着世界上的企鹅。他们说十七种企鹅中的十中正面临
着灭绝的危险。例如,成千的麦哲伦企鹅在Punta Tombo建立了它们的巢穴,阿根廷
野生动物保护协会的研究员对这些企鹅有了18年的研究,他们说至从1987年企鹅的
数量已经减少了30%。企鹅是一种生活在南半球的黑白相间的鸟。它们大多数生活
在南美洲,新西兰,澳大利亚和南非。大部分生活在冷水域中,但也有些生活在
Galapagos岛的温水域中,在厄瓜多尔海岸。企鹅不会飞。但是它们是很好的游泳者。
企鹅是吃鱼的。一些种类的企鹅吃小的甲壳类的类虾,磷虾。
大多数科学家认为全球变暖是使企鹅数量减少的主要原因,他们认为大气变暖使海水
便温。科学家说高的海水温度造成鱼和磷虾的供应减少。
大气和海水的温度上升对Galapagos企鹅有特别的害处。研究员们说过些年这些鸟将
会完全的失去繁殖的能力。此外,许多成年企鹅死于饥饿。
大面积的捕鱼,勘探原油和油的泄漏同样威胁着企鹅,海水中的有毒的有机体是另一个
威胁。海水的变化导致这些花朵的中毒。一些科学家认为海水变暖是主要的原因。
在1990年,超过半数的新西兰黄眼企鹅突然死亡。这些处于危险中的企鹅可能死于
一种奇怪的疾病。企鹅同样有天敌,包括海狗,鲨鱼,海豹和海狮。
关于企鹅的新闻不总是坏的,大约一年前,轮船原油的泄漏危害了由40%的南非的企鹅
。这些企鹅都被原油覆盖,但是成千的居民帮助清洗治疗这些企鹅。然后他们把企鹅
放回大自然中。原油泄漏后,现在这些南非的企鹅正快速的繁殖。

Sep 24, 2008 5:53 AM
Comments · 3
That's horrible!!!
October 1, 2008
thats terrible, toxic waste in nature and polluting
its only going to kill us because we depend on animals as much as they depend on us
September 30, 2008
可爱的企鹅们啊。。!!!
September 28, 2008
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